The ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (https://chi2020.acm.org/)

Live Sketchnoting Across Platforms: Exploring the Potential and Limitations of Analogue and Digital Tools
Marina Fernández Camporro (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Nicolai Marquardt (University College London, London, United Kingdom)
Sketchnoting is the process of creating a visual record with combined text and imagery of an event or presentation. Although analogue tools are still the most common method for sketchnoting, the use of digital tools is increasing. We conducted a study to better understand the current practices, techniques, compromises and opportunities of creating both pen&paper and digital sketchnotes. Our research combines insights from semi-structured interviews with the findings from a within-subjects observational study where ten participants created real time sketchnotes of two video presentations on both paper and digital tablet. We report our key findings, categorised into six themes: insights into sense of space; trade-offs with flexibility; choice paradox and cognitive load; matters of perception, accuracy and texture; issues around confidence; and practicalities. We discuss those findings, the potential and limitations of different methods, and implications for the design of future digital sketchnoting tools.
Classification of Functional Attention in Video Meetings
Anastasia Kuzminykh (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada)Sean Rintel (Microsoft Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom)
Participants in video meetings have long struggled with asymmetrical attention levels, especially when participants are distributed unevenly. While technological advances offer exciting opportunities to augment remote users' attention, the phenomenological complexity of attention means that to design attention-fostering features we must first understand what aspects of it are functionally meaningful to support. In this paper, we present a functional classification of observable attention for video meetings. The classification was informed by two studies on sense-making and selectiveness of attention in work meetings. It includes categories of attention accessible for technological support, their functions in a meeting process, and meeting-related activities that correspond to these functions. This classification serves as a multi-level representation of attention and informs the design of features aiming to support remote participants' attention in video meetings.
Defining Haptic Experience: Foundations for Understanding, Communicating, and Evaluating HX
Erin Kim (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada)Oliver Schneider (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada)
Haptic technology is maturing, with expectations and evidence that it will contribute to user experience (UX). However, we have very little understanding about how haptic technology can influence people's experience. Researchers and designers need a way to understand, communicate, and evaluate haptic technology's effect on UX. From a literature review and two studies – one with haptics novices, the other with expert hapticians – we developed a theoretical model of the factors that constitute a good haptic experience (HX). We define HX and propose its constituent factors: design parameters of Timeliness, Density, Intensity, and Timbre; the cross-cutting concern of Personalization; usability requirements of Utility, Causality, Consistency, and Saliency; and experiential factors of Harmony, Expressivity, Autotelics, Immersion, and Realism as guiding constructs important for haptic experience. This model will help guide design and research of haptic systems, inform language around haptics, and provide the basis for evaluative instruments, such as checklists, heuristics, or questionnaires.
AirTouch: 3D-printed Touch-Sensitive Objects Using Pneumatic Sensing
Carlos E. Tejada (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)Raf Ramakers (Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium)Sebastian Boring (Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark)Daniel Ashbrook (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)
3D printing technology can be used to rapidly prototype the look and feel of 3D objects. However, the objects produced are passive. There has been increasing interest in making these objects interactive, yet they often require assembling components or complex calibration. In this paper, we contribute AirTouch, a technique that enables designers to fabricate touch-sensitive objects with minimal assembly and calibration using pneumatic sensing. AirTouch-enabled objects are 3D printed as a single structure using a consumer-level 3D printer. AirTouch uses pre-trained machine learning models to identify interactions with fabricated objects, meaning that there is no calibration required once the object has completed printing. We evaluate our technique using fabricated objects with various geometries and touch sensitive locations, obtaining accuracies of at least 90% with 12 interactive locations.
Exploring the Potential of an Intelligent Tutoring System for Sketching Fundamentals
Blake Williford (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA)Matthew Runyon (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA)Wayne Li (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA)Julie Linsey (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA)Tracy Hammond (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA)
Sketching is a practical and useful skill that can benefit communication and problem solving. However, it remains a difficult skill to learn because of low confidence and motivation among students and limited availability for instruction and personalized feedback among teachers. There is an need to improve the educational experience for both groups, and we hypothesized that integrating technology could provide a variety of benefits. We designed and developed an intelligent tutoring system for sketching fundamentals called Sketchtivity, and deployed it in to six existing courses at the high school and university level during the 2017-2018 school year. 268 students used the tool and produced more than 116,000 sketches of basic primitives. We conducted semi-structured interviews with the six teachers who implemented the software, as well as nine students from a course where the tool was used extensively. Using grounded theory, we found ten categories which unveiled the benefits and limitations of integrating an intelligent tutoring system for sketching fundamentals in to existing pedagogy.
Trigeminal-based Temperature Illusions
Jas Brooks (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA)Steven Nagels (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA)Pedro Lopes (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA)
We explore a temperature illusion that uses low-powered electronics and enables the miniaturization of simple warm and cool sensations. Our illusion relies on the properties of certain scents, such as the coolness of mint or hotness of peppers. These odors trigger not only the olfactory bulb, but also the nose's trigeminal nerve, which has receptors that respond to both temperature and chemicals. To exploit this, we engineered a wearable device based on micropumps and an atomizer that emits up to three custom-made "thermal" scents directly to the user's nose. Breathing in these scents causes the user to feel warmer or cooler. We demonstrate how our device renders warmth and cooling sensations in virtual experiences. In our first study, we evaluated six candidate "thermal" scents. We found two hot-cold pairs, with one pair being less identifiable by odor. In our second study, pParticipants rated VR experiences with our device trigeminal stimulants as significantly warmer or cooler than the baseline conditions. Lastly, we believe this offers an alternative to existing thermal feedback devices, which unfortunately rely on power-hungry heat-lamps or Peltier-elements.
UI Dark Patterns and Where to Find Them: A Study on Mobile Applications and User Perception
Linda Di Geronimo (University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)Larissa Braz (University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)Enrico Fregnan (University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)Fabio Palomba (University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)Alberto Bacchelli (University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)
A Dark Pattern (DP) is an interface maliciously crafted to deceive users into performing actions they did not mean to do. In this work, we analyze Dark Patterns in 240 popular mobile apps and conduct an online experiment with 589 users on how they perceive Dark Patterns in such apps. The results of the analysis show that 95% of the analyzed apps contain one or more forms of Dark Patterns and, on average, popular applications include at least seven different types of deceiving interfaces. The online experiment shows that most users do not recognize Dark Patterns, but can perform better in recognizing malicious designs if informed on the issue. We discuss the impact of our work and what measures could be applied to alleviate the issue.
Evaluating a Personalizable, Inconspicuous Vibrotactile(PIV) Breathing Pacer for In-the-Moment Affect Regulation
Pardis Miri (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA)Emily Jusuf (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA)Andero Uusberg (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Horia Margarit (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA)Robert Flory (Intel, Hillsboro, OR, USA)Katherine Isbister (University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA)Keith Marzullo (University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA)James J. Gross (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)
Given the prevalence and adverse impact of anxiety, there is considerable interest in using technology to regulate anxiety. Evaluating the efficacy of such technology in terms of both the average effect (the intervention efficacy) and the heterogeneous effect (for whom and in what context the intervention was effective) is of paramount importance. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of PIV, a personalized breathing pacer, in reducing anxiety in the presence of a cognitive stressor. We also quantify the relation between our specific stressor and PIV-user engagement. To our knowledge, this is the first mixed-design study of a vibrotactile affect regulation technology which accounts for a specific stressor and for individual differences in relation to the technology's efficacy. Guidelines in this paper can be applied for designing and evaluating other affect regulation technologies.
When Design Novices and LEGO^(®) Meet: Stimulating Creative Thinking for Interface Design
Simon Bourdeau (ESG-UQAM, Montréal, PQ, Canada)Annemarie Lesage (HEC Montréal, Montréal, PQ, Canada)Béatrice Caron (HEC Montréal, Montréal, PQ, Canada)Pierre-Majorique Léger (HEC Montréal, Montréal, PQ, Canada)
Design thinking is an iterative, human-centered approach to innovation. Its success rests on collaboration within a multidisciplinary project team going through cycles of divergent and convergent ideations. In these teams, nondesigners risk diminishing the divergent reach because they are generally reluctant to sketch, thus missing out on theambiguous, imprecise early conceptual divergent phases. We hypothesized that LEGO^(®) could advantageously be a substitute to sketching. In this comparative study, 44 nondesigners randomly paired in 22 dyads did two conceptual ideations of healthcare landing pages, one using pen/paper (spontaneously writing words on sticky notes) and the other using LEGO, assessed through Torrance and Guilford frameworks for divergent thinking. Results show that LEGO interfaces gathered significantly higher divergent thinking scores because their concepts were significantly more elaborated. Furthermore, when using LEGO, teams who generated more elements were likely to also generate more ideas, more categories of ideas and more original ideas.
Music Creation by Example
Emma Frid (KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden)Celso Gomes (Adobe Research, Seattle, WA, USA)Zeyu Jin (Adobe Research, San Francisco, CA, USA)
Short online videos have become the dominating media on social platforms. However, finding suitable music to accompany videos can be a challenging task to some video creators, due to copyright constraints, limitations in search engines, and required audio-editing expertise. One possible solution to these problems is to use AI music generation. In this paper we present a user interface (UI) paradigm that allows users to input a song to an AI engine and then interactively regenerate and mix AI-generated music. To arrive at this design, we conducted user studies with a total of 104 video creators at several stages of our design and development process. User studies supported the effectiveness of our approach and provided valuable insights about human-AI interaction as well as the design and evaluation of mixed-initiative interfaces in creative practice.
"How do I make this thing smile?": An Inventory of Expressive Nonverbal Communication in Commercial Social Virtual Reality Platforms
Theresa Jean Tanenbaum (University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA)Nazely Hartoonian (University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA)Jeffrey Bryan (University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA)
Despite the proliferation of platforms for social Virtual Reality (VR) communicating emotional expression via an avatar remains a significant design challenge. In order to better understand the design space for expressive Nonverbal Communication (NVC) in social VR we undertook an inventory of the ten most prominent social VR platforms. Our inventory identifies the dominant design strategies for movement, facial control, and gesture in commercial VR applications, and identifies opportunities and challenges for future design and research into social expression in VR. Specifically, we highlight the paucity of interaction paradigms for facial expression and the near nonexistence of meaningful control over ambient aspects of nonverbal communication such as posture, pose, and social status.
Race Yourselves: A Longitudinal Exploration of Self-Competition Between Past, Present, and Future Performances in a VR Exergame
Alexander Michael (University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom)Christof Lutteroth (University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom)
Participating in competitive races can be a thrilling experience for athletes, involving a rush of excitement and sensations of flow, achievement, and self-fulfilment. However, for non-athletes, the prospect of competition is often a scary one which affects intrinsic motivation negatively, especially for less fit, less competitive individuals. We propose a novel method making the positive racing experience accessible to non-athletes using a high-intensity cycling VR exergame: by recording and replaying all their previous gameplay sessions simultaneously, including a projected future performance, players can race against a crowd of "ghost" avatars representing their individual fitness journey. The experience stays relevant and exciting as every race adds a new competitor. A longitudinal study over four weeks and a cross-sectional study found that the new method improves physical performance, intrinsic motivation, and flow compared to a non-competitive exergame. Additionally, the longitudinal study provides insights into the longer-term effects of VR exergames.
Gaiters: Exploring Skin Stretch Feedback on Legs for Enhancing Virtual Reality Experiences
Chi Wang (National Taiwan University & National Chiao Tung University, Taipei & Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Da-Yuan Huang (National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Shuo-Wen Hsu (National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Cheng-Lung Lin (National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Yeu-Luen Chiu (National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Chu-En Hou (National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Bing-Yu Chen (National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Roc)
We propose generating two-dimensional skin stretch feedback on the user's legs. Skin stretch is useful cutaneous feedback to induce the perception of virtual textures and illusory forces and to deliver directional cues. This feedback has been applied to the head, body, and upper limbs to simulate rich physical properties in virtual reality (VR). However, how to expand the benefit of skin stretch feedback and apply it to the lower limbs, remains to be explored. Our first two psychophysical studies examined the minimum changes in skin stretch distance and stretch angle that are perceivable by participants. We then designed and implemented Gaiters, a pair of ungrounded, leg-worn devices, each of which is able to generate multiple two-dimensional skin stretches on the skin of the user's leg. With Gaiters, we conducted an exploratory study to understand participants' experiences when coupling skin stretch patterns with various lower limb actions. The results indicate that rich haptic experiences can be created by our prototype. Finally, a user evaluation indicates that participants enjoyed the experiences when using Gaiters and considered skin stretch as compelling haptic feedback on the legs.
FoodFab: Creating Food Perception Illusions using Food 3D Printing
Ying-Ju Lin (Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan)Parinya Punpongsanon (Osaka University & Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan)Xin Wen (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Daisuke Iwai (Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan)Kosuke Sato (Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan)Marianna Obrist (Massachusetts Institute of Technology & University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom)Stefanie Mueller (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)
Personalization of eating such that everyone consumes only what they need allows improving our management of food waste. In this paper, we explore the use of food 3D printing to create perceptual illusions for controlling the level of perceived satiety given a defined amount of calories. We present FoodFab, a system that allows users to control their food intake through modifying a food's internal structure via two 3D printing parameters: infill pattern and infill density. In two experiments with a total of 30 participants, we studied the effect of these parameters on users' chewing time that is known to affect people's feeling of satiety. Our results show that we can indeed modify the chewing time by varying infill pattern and density, and thus control perceived satiety. Based on the results, we propose two computational models and integrate them into a user interface that simplifies the creation of personalized food structures.
ScrAPIr: Making Web Data APIs Accessible to End Users
Tarfah Alrashed (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Jumana Almahmoud (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Amy X. Zhang (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)David R. Karger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)
Users have long struggled to extract and repurpose data from websites by laboriously copying or scraping content from web pages. An alternative is to write scripts that pull data through APIs. This provides a cleaner way to access data than scraping; however, APIs are effortful for programmers and nigh-impossible for non-programmers to use. In this work, we empower users to access APIs without programming. We evolve a schema for declaratively specifying how to interact with a data API. We then develop ScrAPIr: a standard query GUI that enables users to fetch data through any API for which a specification exists, and a second GUI that lets users author and share the specification for a given API. From a lab evaluation, we find that even non-programmers can access APIs using ScrAPIr, while programmers can access APIs 3.8 times faster on average using ScrAPIr than using programming.
Get a Grip: Evaluating Grip Gestures for VR Input using a Lightweight Pen
Nianlong Li (Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)Teng Han (Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)Feng Tian (Institute of software, Chinese Academy of Sciences & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)Jin Huang (Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)Minghui Sun (Jilin University, Changchun, China)Pourang Irani (University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada)Jason Alexander (Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom)
The use of Virtual Reality (VR) in applications such as data analysis, artistic creation, and clinical settings requires high precision input. However, the current design of handheld controllers, where wrist rotation is the primary input approach, does not exploit the human fingers' capability for dexterous movements for high precision pointing and selection. To address this issue, we investigated the characteristics and potential of using a pen as a VR input device. We conducted two studies. The first examined which pen grip allowed the largest range of motion---we found a tripod grip at the rear end of the shaft met this criterion. The second study investigated target selection via 'poking' and ray-casting, where we found the pen grip outperformed the traditional wrist-based input in both cases. Finally, we demonstrate potential applications enabled by VR pen input and grip postures.
Designing and Evaluating 'In the Same Boat', A Game of Embodied Synchronization for Enhancing Social Play
Raquel Breejon Robinson (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada)Elizabeth Reid (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada)James Collin Fey (University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA)Ansgar E. Depping (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada)Katherine Isbister (University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA)Regan L. Mandryk (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada)
Social closeness is important for health and well-being, but is difficult to maintain over a distance. Games can help connect people by strengthening existing relationships or creating new ones through shared playful experiences. We present the design and evaluation of 'In the Same Boat' (ITSB), a two-player infinite runner designed to foster social closeness in distributed dyads. ITSB leverages the synchronization of both players' input to steer a canoe down a river and avoid obstacles. We created two versions: embodied controls, which use players' physiological signals (breath rate, facial expressions), and standard keyboard controls. Results from a study with 35 dyads indicate that ITSB fostered affiliation, and while embodied controls were less intuitive, people enjoyed them more. Further, photos of the dyads were rated as happier and closer in the embodied condition, indicating the potential of embodied controls to foster social closeness in synchronized play over a distance.
A Literature Review of Quantitative Persona Creation
Joni Salminen (Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University & University of Turku, Doha, Qatar)Kathleen Guan (Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA)Soon-Gyo Jung (Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar)Shammur A. Chowdhury (Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar)Bernard J. Jansen (Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar)
Quantitative persona creation (QPC) has tremendous potential, as HCI researchers and practitioners can leverage user data from online analytics and digital media platforms to better understand their users and customers. However, there is a lack of a systematic overview of the QPC methods and progress made, with no standard methodology or known best practices. To address this gap, we review 49 QPC research articles from 2005 to 2019. Results indicate three stages of QPC research: Emergence, Diversification, and Sophistication. Sharing resources, such as datasets, code, and algorithms, is crucial to achieving the next stage (Maturity). For practitioners, we provide guiding questions for assessing QPC readiness in organizations.
A Skin-Stroke Display on the Eye-Ring Through Head-Mounted Displays
Wen-Jie Tseng (National Chiao Tung University & Institut Polytechnique de Paris, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Yi-Chen Lee (Institute of Multimedia Engineering, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Roshan L. Peiris (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA)Liwei Chan (Computer Science, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)
We present the Skin-Stroke Display, a system mounted on the lens inside the head-mounted display, which exerts subtle yet recognizable tactile feedback on the eye-ring using a motorized air jet. To inform our design of noticeable air-jet haptic feedback, we conducted a user study to identify absolute detection thresholds. Our results show that the tactile sensation had different sensitivity around the eyes, and we determined a standard intensity (8 mbar) to prevent turbulent airflow blowing into the eyes. In the second study, we asked participants to adjust the intensity around the eye for equal sensation based on standard intensity. Next, we investigated the recognition of point and stroke stimuli with or without inducing cognitive load on eight directions on the eye-ring. Our longStroke stimulus can achieve an accuracy of 82.6% without cognitive load and 80.6% with cognitive load simulated by the Stroop test. Finally, we demonstrate example applications using the skin-stroke display as the off-screen indicator, tactile I/O progress display, and tactile display.
Debugging Database Queries: A Survey of Tools, Techniques, and Users
Sneha Gathani (University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, USA)Peter Lim (University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, USA)Leilani Battle (University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, USA)
Database management systems (or DBMSs) have been around for decades, and yet are still difficult to use, particularly when trying to identify and fix errors in user programs (or queries). We seek to understand what methods have been proposed to help people debug database queries, and whether these techniques have ultimately been adopted by DBMSs (and users). We conducted an interdisciplinary review of 112 papers and tools from the database, visualisation and HCI communities. To better understand whether academic and industry approaches are meeting the needs of users, we interviewed 20 database users (and some designers), and found surprising results. In particular, there seems to be a wide gulf between users' debugging strategies and the functionality implemented in existing DBMSs, as well as proposed in the literature. In response, we propose new design guidelines to help system designers to build features that more closely match users debugging strategies.
Investigating Collaborative Exploration of Design Alternatives on a Wall-Sized Display
Yujiro Okuya (Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, LIMSI VENISE team & Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Inria, LRI, Orsay, France)Olivier Gladin (Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Inria, LRI, Orsay, France)Nicolas Ladevèze (Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, LIMSI, VENISE team, Orsay, France)Cédric Fleury (Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Inria, LRI, Orsay, France)Patrick Bourdot (Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, LIMSI VENISE team, Orsay, France)
Industrial design review is an iterative process which mainly relies on two steps involving many stakeholders: design discussion and CAD data adjustment. We investigate how a wall-sized display could be used to merge these two steps by allowing multidisciplinary collaborators to simultaneously generate and explore design alternatives. We designed ShapeCompare based on the feedback from a usability study. It enables multiple users to compute and distribute CAD data with touch interaction. To assess the benefit of the wall-sized display in such context, we ran a controlled experiment which aims to compare ShapeCompare with a visualization technique suitable for standard screens. The results show that pairs of participants performed a constraint solving task faster and used more deictic instructions with ShapeCompare. From these findings, we draw generic recommendations for collaborative exploration of alternatives.
E-Textile Microinteractions: Augmenting Twist with Flick, Slide and Grasp Gestures for Soft Electronics
Alex Olwal (Google Research, Mountain View, CA, USA)Thad Starner (Google Research, Mountain View, CA, USA)Gowa Mainini (Google Research, Mountain View, CA, USA)
E-textile microinteractions advance cord-based interfaces by enabling the simultaneous use of precise continuous control and casual discrete gestures. We leverage the recently introduced I/O Braid sensing architecture to enable a series of user studies and experiments which help design suitable interactions and a real-time gesture recognition pipeline. Informed by a gesture elicitation study with 36 participants, we developed a user-dependent classifier for eight discrete gestures with 94% accuracy for 12 participants. In a formal evaluation we show that we can enable precise manipulation with the same architecture. Our quantitative targeting experiment suggests that twisting is faster than existing headphone button controls and is comparable in speed to a capacitive touch surface. Qualitative interview feedback indicates a preference for I/O Braid's interaction over that of in-line headphone controls. Our applications demonstrate how continuous and discrete gestures can be combined to form new, integrated e-textile microinteraction techniques for real-time continuous control, discrete actions and mode switching.
Evaluation of Machine Learning Techniques for Hand Pose Estimation on Handheld Device with Proximity Sensor
Kazuyuki Arimatsu (Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc., Tokyo, Japan)Hideki Mori (Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc., Minato-ku, Japan)
Tracking finger movement for natural interaction using hand is commonly studied. For vision-based implementations of finger tracking in virtual reality (VR) application, finger movement is occluded by a handheld device which is necessary for auxiliary input, thus tracking finger movement using cameras is still challenging. Finger tracking controllers using capacitive proximity sensors on the surface are starting to appear. However, research on estimating articulated hand pose from curved capacitance sensing electrodes is still immature. Therefore, we built a prototype with 62 electrodes and recorded training datasets using an optical tracking system. We have introduced 2.5D representation to apply convolutional neural network methods on a capacitive image of the curved surface, and two types of network architectures based on recent achievements in the computer vision field were evaluated with our dataset. We also implemented real-time interactive applications using the prototype and demonstrated the possibility of intuitive interaction using fingers in VR applications.
The Curious Case of the Transdiegetic Cow, or a Mission to Foster Other-Oriented Empathy Through Virtual Reality
Martijn J.L. Kors (Eindhoven University of Technology & Amsterdam University of Applied Science, Eindhoven, Noord Brabant, Netherlands)Erik D. van der Spek (Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Noord Brabant, Netherlands)Julia A. Bopp (University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland)Karel Millenaar (Amsterdam University of Applied Science, Amsterdam, Netherlands)Rutger L. van Teutem (Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands)Gabriele Ferri (Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands)Ben A.M. Schouten (Eindhoven University of Technology & Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Eindhoven & Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Socially aware persuasive games that use immersive technologies often appeal to empathy, prompting users to feel and understand the struggles of another. However, the often sought-after 'standing in another's shoes' experience, in which users virtually inhabit another in distress, may complicate other-oriented empathy. Following a Research through Design approach, we designed for other-oriented empathy – focusing on a partaker-perspective and diegetic reflection – which resulted in Permanent; a virtual reality game designed to foster empathy towards evacuees from the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. We deployed Permanent 'in the wild' and carried out a qualitative study with 78 participants in the Netherlands and Japan to capture user experiences. Content Analysis of the data showed a predominance of other-oriented empathy across countries, and in our Thematic Analysis, we identified the themes of 'Spatial, Other, and Self -Awareness', 'Personal Accounts', 'Ambivalence', and 'Transdiegetic Items', resulting in design insights for fostering other-oriented empathy through virtual reality.
Household Surface Interactions: Understanding User Input Preferences and Perceived Home Experiences
Garreth W. Tigwell (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA)Michael Crabb (University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom)
Households contain a variety of surfaces that are used in a number of activity contexts. As ambient technology becomes commonplace in our homes, it is only a matter of time before these surfaces become linked to computer systems for Household Surface Interaction (HSI). However, little is known about the user experience attached to HSI, and the potential acceptance of HSI within modern homes. To address this problem, we ran a mixed methods user study with 39 participants to examine HSI using nine household surfaces and five common gestures (tap, press, swipe, drag, and pinch). We found that under the right conditions, surfaces with some amount of texture can enhance HSI. Furthermore, perceived good and poor user experience varied among participants for surface type indicating individual preferences. We present findings and design considerations based on surface characteristics and the challenges that users perceive they may have with HSI within their homes.
Kirigami Haptic Swatches: Design Methods for Cut-and-Fold Haptic Feedback Mechanisms
Zekun Chang (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Tung D. Ta (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Koya Narumi (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Heeju Kim (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Fuminori Okuya (University of Tokyo, Hongo, Japan)Dongchi Li (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Kunihiro Kato (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Jie Qi (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Yoshinobu Miyamoto (Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Japan)Kazuya Saito (Kyushu University, Minami-Ku, Japan)Yoshihiro Kawahara (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)
Kirigami Haptic Swatches demonstrate how kirigami and origami based structures enable sophisticated haptic feedback through simple cut-and-fold fabrication techniques. We leverage four types of geometric patterns: rotational erection system (RES), split-fold waterbomb (SFWB), the overlaid structure of SFWB and RES (SFWB+RES), and cylindrical origami, to render different sets of haptic feedback (i.e. linear, bistable, bouncing snap-through, and rotational force behaviors, respectively). In each structure, not only the form factor but also the force feedback properties can be tuned through geometric parameters. We experimentally analyzed and modeled the structures, and implemented software to automatically generate 2D patterns for desired haptic properties. We also demonstrate five example applications including an assistive custom keyboard, rotational switch, multi-sensory toy, task checklist, and phone accessories. We believe the Kirigami Haptic Swatches helps tinkerers, designers, and even researchers to create interactions that enrich our haptic experience.
Designing IoT Resources to Support Outdoor Play for Children
Thomas Dylan (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom)Gavin Wood (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom)Abigail C. Durrant (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom)John Vines (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom)Pablo E. Torres (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Philip I. N. Ulrich (Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, United Kingdom)Mutlu Cukurova (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Amanda Carr (Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, United Kingdom)Sena Çerçi (Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom)Shaun Lawson (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom)
We describe a Research-through-Design (RtD) project that explores the Internet of Things (IoT) as a resource for children's free play outdoors. Based on initial insights from a design ethnography, we developed four RtD prototypes for social play in different scenarios of use outdoors, including congregating on a street or in a park to play physical games with IoT. We observed these prototypes in use by children in their free play in two community settings, and report on the qualitative analysis of our fieldwork. Our findings highlight the designs' material qualities that encouraged social and physical play under certain conditions, suggesting social affordances that are central to the success of IoT designs for free play outdoors. We provide directions for future research that addresses the challenges faced when deploying IoT with children, contributing new considerations for interaction design with children in outdoor settings and free play contexts.
Body-Penetrating Tactile Phantom Sensations
Jinsoo Kim (Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea)Seungjae Oh (Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea)Chaeyong Park (Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea)Seungmoon Choi (Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea)
In tactile interaction, a phantom sensation refers to an illusion felt on the skin between two distant points at which vibrations are applied. It can improve the perceptual spatial resolution of tactile stimulation with a few tactors. All phantom sensations reported in the literature act on the skin or out of the body, but no such reports exist for those eliciting sensations penetrating the body. This paper addresses tactile phantom sensations in which two vibration actuators on the dorsal and palmar sides of the hand present an illusion of vibration passing through the hand. We also demonstrate similar tactile illusions for the torso. For optimal design, we conducted user studies while varying vibration frequency, envelope function, stimulus duration, and penetrating direction. Based on the results, we present design guidelines on penetrating phantom sensations for its use in immersive virtual reality applications.
BodyLights: Open-Ended Augmented Feedback to Support Training Towards a Correct Exercise Execution
Laia Turmo Vidal (Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)Hui Zhu (Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)Abraham Riego-Delgado (Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)
Technologies targeting a correct execution of physical training exercises typically use pre-determined models for what they consider correct, automatizing instruction and feedback. This falls short on catering to diverse trainees and exercises. We explore an alternative design approach, in which technology provides open-ended feedback for trainers and trainees to use during training. With a personal trainer we designed the augmentation of 18 strength training exercises with BodyLights: 3D printed wearable projecting lights that augment body movement and orientation. To study them, 15 trainees at different skill levels trained three times with our personal trainer and BodyLights. Our findings show that BodyLights catered to a wide range of trainees and exercises, and supported understanding, executing and correcting diverse technique parameters. We discuss design features and methodological aspects that allowed this; and what open-ended feedback offered in comparison to current technology approaches to support training towards a correct exercise execution.
Exploring The Future of Data-Driven Product Design
Katerina Gorkovenko (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)Daniel J. Burnett (Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom)James K. Thorp (Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom)Daniel Richards (Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom)Dave Murray-Rust (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
Connected devices present new opportunities to advance design through data collection in the wild, similar to the way digital services evolve through analytics. However, it is still unclear how live data transmitted by connected devices informs the design of these products, going beyond performance optimisation to support creative practices. Design can be enriched by data captured by connected devices, from usage logs to environmental sensors, and data about the devices and people around them. Through a series of workshops, this paper contributes industry and academia perspectives on the future of data-driven product design. We highlight HCI challenges, issues and implications, including sensemaking and the generation of design insight. We further challenge current notions of data-driven design and envision ways in which future HCI research can develop ways to work with data in the design process in a connected, rich, human manner.
Virtual Reality Games for People Using Wheelchairs
Kathrin Gerling (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium)Patrick Dickinson (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom)Kieran Hicks (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom)Liam Mason (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom)Adalberto L. Simeone (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium)Katta Spiel (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium)
Virtual Reality (VR) holds the promise of providing engaging embodied experiences, but little is known about how people with disabilities engage with it. We explore challenges and opportunities of VR gaming for wheelchair users. First, we present findings from a survey that received 25 responses and gives insights into wheelchair users' motives to (non-) engage with VR and their experiences. Drawing from this survey, we derive design implications which we tested through implementation and qualitative evaluation of three full-body VR game prototypes with 18 participants. Our results show that VR gaming engages wheelchair users, though nuanced consideration is required for the design of embodied immersive experiences for minority bodies, and we illustrate how designers can create meaningful, positive experiences.
Enabling Data-Driven API Design with Community Usage Data: A Need-Finding Study
Tianyi Zhang (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA)Björn Hartmann (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA)Miryung Kim (University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA)Elena L. Glassman (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA)
APIs are becoming the fundamental building block of modern software and their usability is crucial to programming efficiency and software quality. Yet API designers find it hard to gather and interpret user feedback on their APIs. To close the gap, we interviewed 23 API designers from 6 companies and 11 open-source projects to understand their practices and needs. The primary way of gathering user feedback is through bug reports and peer reviews, as formal usability testing is prohibitively expensive to conduct in practice. Participants expressed a strong desire to gather real-world use cases and understand users' mental models, but there was a lack of tool support for such needs. In particular, participants were curious about where users got stuck, their workarounds, common mistakes, and unanticipated corner cases. We highlight several opportunities to address those unmet needs, including developing new mechanisms that systematically elicit users' mental models, building mining frameworks that identify recurring patterns beyond shallow statistics about API usage, and exploring alternative design choices made in similar libraries.
Embedding a VR Game Studio in a Sedentary Workplace: Use, Experience and Exercise Benefits
Soojeong Yoo (University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia)Phillip Gough (University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia)Judy Kay (University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia)
Many people, especially those in sedentary occupations, fail to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity. Virtual reality (VR) games have the potential to overcome this because they are fun and also can be physically demanding. This paper explores whether a VR game studio can help workers in sedentary jobs to get valuable levels of exercise. We studied how 11 participants used our VR game studio in a sedentary workplace over 8-weeks and their perceptions of the experience. We analysed the physical exertion in the VR game studio, comparing this to their step counts from a smartwatch. All participants achieved valuable levels of physical activity and mood benefits. Importantly, for 6 participants, only with the VR game studio did they meet recommended activity levels. Our key contributions are insights about the use of a workplace VR game studio and its health benefits.
Too Hot to Handle: An Evaluation of the Effect of Thermal Visual Representation on User Grasping Interaction in Virtual Reality
Andreea Dalia Blaga (Birmingham City University, Birmingham, United Kingdom)Maite Frutos-Pascual (Birmingham City University, Birmingham, United Kingdom)Chris Creed (Birmingham City University, Birmingham, United Kingdom)Ian Williams (Birmingham City University, Birmingham West Midlands, United Kingdom)
Influence of interaction fidelity and rendering quality on perceived user experience have been largely explored in Virtual Reality (VR). However, differences in interaction choices triggered by these rendering cues have not yet been explored. We present a study analysing the effect of thermal visual cues and contextual information on 50 participants' approach to grasp and move a virtual mug. This study comprises 3 different temperature cues (baseline empty, hot and cold) and 4 contextual representations; all embedded in a VR scenario. We evaluate 2 different hand representations (abstract and human) to assess grasp metrics. Results show temperature cues influenced grasp location, with the mug handle being predominantly grasped with a smaller grasp aperture for the hot condition, while the body and top were preferred for baseline and cold conditions.
Making Chat at Home in the Hospital: Exploring Chat Use by Nurses
Naveena Karusala (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)Ding Wang (Microsoft Research India, Bengaluru, India)Jacki O'Neill (Microsoft Research India, Bengaluru, India)
In this paper, we examine WhatsApp use by nurses in India. Globally, personal chat apps have taken the workplace by storm, and healthcare is no exception. In the hospital setting, this raises questions around how chat apps are integrated into hospital work and the consequences of using such personal tools for work. To address these questions, we conducted an ethnographic study of chat use in nurses' work in a large multi-specialty hospital. By examining how chat is embedded in the hospital, rather than focusing on individual use of personal tools, we throw new light on the adoption of personal tools at work — specifically what happens when such tools are adopted and used as though they were organisational tools. In doing so, we explicate their impact on invisible work [77] and the creep of work into personal time, as well as how hierarchy and power play out in technology use. Thus, we point to the importance of looking beyond individual adoption by knowledge workers when studying the impact of personal tools at work.
Keep it Simple: How Visual Complexity and Preferences Impact Search Efficiency on Websites
Amanda Baughan (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)Tal August (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)Naomi Yamashita (NTT Communication Science Laboratories, Keihanna, Japan)Katharina Reinecke (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)
We conducted an online study with 165 participants in which we tested their search efficiency and information recall. We confirm that the visual complexity of a website has a significant negative effect on search efficiency and information recall. However, the search efficiency of those who preferred simple websites was more negatively affected by highly complex websites than those who preferred high visual complexity. Our results suggest that diverse visual preferences need to be accounted for when assessing search response time and information recall in HCI experiments, testing software, or A/B tests.
Me vs. Super(wo)man: Effects of Customization and Identification in a VR Exergame
Jordan Koulouris (University of Bath, Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom)Zoe Jeffery (University of Bath, Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom)James Best (University of Bath, Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom)Eamonn O'Neill (University of Bath, Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom)Christof Lutteroth (University of Bath, Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom)
Customised avatars are a powerful tool to increase identification, engagement and intrinsic motivation in digital games. We investigated the effects of customisation in a self-competitive VR exergame by modelling players and their previous performance in the game with customised avatars. In a first study we found that, similar to non-exertion games, customisation significantly increased identification and intrinsic motivation, as well as physical performance in the exergame. In a second study we identified a more complex relationship with the customisation style: idealised avatars increased wishful identification but decreased exergame performance compared to realistic avatars. In a third study, we found that 'enhancing' realistic avatars with idealised characteristics increased wishful identification, but did not have any adverse effects. We discuss the findings based on feedforward and self-determination theory, proposing notions of intrinsic identification (fostering a sense of self) and extrinsic identification (drawing away from the self) to explain the results.
Getting the Healthcare We Want: The Use of Online "Ask the Doctor" Platforms in Practice
Xianghua Ding (Fudan University, Shanghai, China)Xinning Gui (Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA)Xiaojuan Ma (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China)Zhaofei Ding (Fudan University, Shanghai, China)Yunan Chen (University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA)
Online Ask the Doctor (AtD) services allow access to health professionals anytime anywhere beyond existing patient-provider relationships. Recently, many free-market AtD platforms have emerged and been adopted by a large scale of users. However, it is still unclear how people make use of these AtD platforms in practice. In this paper, we present an interview study with 12 patients/caregivers who had experience using AtD in China, highlighting patient agency in seeking more reliable and cost-effective healthcare beyond clinic settings. Specifically, we illustrate how they make strategic choices online on AtD platforms, and how they strategically integrate online and offline services together for healthcare. This paper contributes an empirical study of the use of large-scale AtD platforms in practice, demonstrates patient agency for healthcare beyond clinic settings, and recommends design implications for online healthcare services.
Wireality: Enabling Complex Tangible Geometries in Virtual Reality with Worn Multi-String Haptics
Cathy Fang (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA)Yang Zhang (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA)Matthew Dworman (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA)Chris Harrison (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA)
Today's virtual reality (VR) systems allow users to explore immersive new worlds and experiences through sight. Unfortunately, most VR systems lack haptic feedback, and even high-end consumer systems use only basic vibration motors. This clearly precludes realistic physical interactions with virtual objects. Larger obstacles, such as walls, railings, and furniture are not simulated at all. In response, we developed Wireality, a self-contained worn system that allows for individual joints on the hands to be accurately arrested in 3D space through the use of retractable wires that can be programmatically locked. This allows for convincing tangible interactions with complex geometries, such as wrapping fingers around a railing. Our approach is lightweight, low-cost, and low-power, criteria important for future, worn consumer uses. In our studies, we further show that our system is fast-acting, spatially-accurate, high-strength, comfortable, and immersive.
FaceHaptics: Robot Arm based Versatile Facial Haptics for Immersive Environments
Alexander Wilberz (Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Sankt Augustin, Germany)Dominik Leschtschow (Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Sankt Augustin, Germany)Christina Trepkowski (Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Sankt Augustin, Germany)Jens Maiero (Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Sankt Augustin, Germany)Ernst Kruijff (Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Sankt Augustin, Germany)Bernhard Riecke (Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada)
This paper introduces FaceHaptics, a novel haptic display based on a robot arm attached to a head-mounted virtual reality display. It provides localized, multi-directional and movable haptic cues in the form of wind, warmth, moving and single-point touch events and water spray to dedicated parts of the face not covered by the head-mounted display.The easily extensible system, however, can principally mount any type of compact haptic actuator or object. User study 1 showed that users appreciate the directional resolution of cues, and can judge wind direction well, especially when they move their head and wind direction is adjusted dynamically to compensate for head rotations. Study 2 showed that adding FaceHaptics cues to a VR walkthrough can significantly improve user experience, presence, and emotional responses.
Watch+Strap: Extending Smartwatches with Interactive StrapDisplays
Konstantin Klamka (Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)Tom Horak (Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)Raimund Dachselt (Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)
While smartwatches are widely adopted these days, their input and output space remains fairly limited by their screen size. We present StrapDisplays—interactive watchbands with embedded display and touch technologies—that enhance commodity watches and extend their input and output capabilities. After introducing the physical design space of these StrapDisplays, we explore how to combine a smartwatch and straps in a synergistic Watch+Strap system. Specifically, we propose multiple interface concepts that consider promising content distributions, interaction techniques, usage types, and display roles. For example, the straps can enrich watch apps, display visualizations, provide glanceable feedback, or help avoiding occlusion issues. Further, we provide a modular research platform incorporating three StrapDisplay prototypes and a flexible web-based software architecture, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach. Early brainstorming sessions with 15 participants informed our design process, while later interviews with six experts supported our concepts and provided valuable feedback for future developments.
"We can learn. Why not?": Designing Technologies to Engender Equity for Home Health Aides
Emily Tseng (Cornell University, New York, NY, USA)Fabian Okeke (Cornell University, New York, NY, USA)Madeline Sterling (Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA)Nicola Dell (Cornell Tech, New York, NY, USA)
HCI researchers have increasingly studied how technology might improve the lives of marginalized workers. We explored this question through a qualitative study with home health aides in New York City, a vulnerable group of frontline caregivers whose work with patients is poorly paid and highly stressful, often involving life-or-death situations. To elicit the perspectives of aides and their supervisors on how technology interventions might contribute to moving aides towards a better future, we created a design provocation that centers aides' needs and suggests more equitable roles for them within the home care ecosystem. Findings from design sessions with 16 aides, nurses, and aide coordinators illuminate the ethical and pragmatic dilemmas inherent in this complex ecosystem, and show that designing technology for equity requires attention to structural problems in addition to workers' stated needs. We analyze our findings through the lens of social justice-oriented interaction design, and discuss how our work extends key strategies within this framework.
JumpVR: Jump-Based Locomotion Augmentation for Virtual Reality
Dennis Wolf (Ulm University, Ulm, Germany)Katja Rogers (Ulm University, Ulm, Germany)Christoph Kunder (Ulm University, Ulm, Germany)Enrico Rukzio (Ulm University, Ulm, Germany)
One of the great benefits of virtual reality (VR) is the implementation of features that go beyond realism. Common "unrealistic" locomotion techniques (like teleportation) can avoid spatial limitation of tracking, but minimize potential benefits of more realistic techniques (e.g. walking). As an alternative that combines realistic physical movement with hyper-realistic virtual outcome, we present JumpVR, a jump-based locomotion augmentation technique that virtually scales users' physical jumps. In a user study (N=28), we show that jumping in VR (regardless of scaling) can significantly increase presence, motivation and immersion compared to teleportation, while largely not increasing simulator sickness. Further, participants reported higher immersion and motivation for most scaled jumping variants than forward-jumping. Our work shows the feasibility and benefits of jumping in VR and explores suitable parameters for its hyper-realistic scaling. We discuss design implications for VR experiences and research.
PhysioSkin: Rapid Fabrication of Skin-Conformal Physiological Interfaces
Aditya Shekhar Nittala (Saarland University, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany)Arshad Khan (Saarland University, Saarland Informatics Campus & INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Saarbrücken, Germany)Klaus Kruttwig (INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Saarbuecken, Germany)Tobias Kraus (INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Saarbrücken, Germany)Jürgen Steimle (Saarland University, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany)
Advances in rapid prototyping platforms have made physiological sensing accessible to a wide audience. However, off-the-shelf electrodes commonly used for capturing biosignals are typically thick, non-conformal and do not support customization. We present PhysioSkin, a rapid, do-it-yourself prototyping method for fabricating custom multi-modal physiological sensors, using commercial materials and a commodity desktop inkjet printer. It realizes ultrathin skin-conformal patches (~1μm) and interactive textiles that capture sEMG, EDA and ECG signals. It further supports fabricating devices with custom levels of thickness and stretchability. We present detailed fabrication explorations on multiple substrate materials, functional inks and skin adhesive materials. Informed from the literature, we also provide design recommendations for each of the modalities. Evaluation results show that the sensor patches achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. Example applications demonstrate the functionality and versatility of our approach for prototyping a next generation of physiological devices that intimately couple with the human body.
Isopleth: Supporting Sensemaking of Professional Web Applications to Create Readily Available Learning Experiences
Joshua Hibschman (Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States)Darren Gergle (Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States)Eleanor O'Rourke (Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States)Haoqi Zhang (Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States)
Online resources can help novice developers learn basic programming skills, but few resources support progressing from writing working code to learning professional web development practices. We address this gap by advancing Readily Available Learning Experiences, a conceptual approach for transforming all professional web applications into opportunities for authentic learning. This article presents Isopleth, a web-based platform that helps learners make sense of complex code constructs and hidden asynchronous relationships in professional web code. Isopleth embeds sensemaking scaffolds informed by the learning sciences to (1) expose hidden functional and event-driven relationships, (2) surface functionally related slices of code, and (3) support learners manipulating the provided code representations. To expose event-driven relationships, Isopleth implements a novel technique called Serialized Deanonymization to determine and visualize asynchronous functional relationships. To evaluate Isopleth, we conducted a case study across 12 professional websites and a user study with 14 junior and senior developers. Results show that Isopleth’s sensemaking scaffolds helped to surface implementation approaches in event binding, web application design, and complex interactive features across a range of complex professional web applications. Moreover, Isopleth helped junior developers improve the accuracy of their conceptual models of how features are implemented by 31% on average.
Venous Materials: Towards Interactive Fluidic Mechanisms
Hila Mor (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Tianyu Yu (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China)Ken Nakagaki (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Benjamin Harvey Miller (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Yichen Jia (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Hiroshi Ishii (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)
Venous Materials is a novel concept and approach of an interactive material utilizing fluidic channels. We present a design method for fluidic mechanisms that respond to deformation by mechanical inputs from the user, such as pressure and bending. We designed a set of primitive venous structures that act as embedded analog fluidic sensors, displaying flow and color change. In this paper, we consider the fluid as the medium to drive tangible information triggered by deformation, and at the same time, to function as a responsive display of that information. To provide users with a simple way to create and validate designs of fluidic structures, we built a software platform and design tool UI. This design tool allows users to quickly design the geometry, and simulate the flow with intended mechanical force dynamically. We present a range of applications that demonstrate how Venous Materials can be utilized to augment interactivity of everyday physical objects.
Techniques for Flexible Responsive Visualization Design
Jane Hoffswell (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)Wilmot Li (Adobe Research, Seattle, WA, USA)Zhicheng Liu (Adobe Research, Seattle, WA, USA)
Responsive visualizations adapt to effectively present information based on the device context. Such adaptations are essential for news content that is increasingly consumed on mobile devices. However, existing tools provide little support for responsive visualization design. We analyze a corpus of 231 responsive news visualizations and discuss formative interviews with five journalists about responsive visualization design. These interviews motivate four central design guidelines: enable simultaneous cross-device edits, facilitate device-specific customization, show cross-device previews, and support propagation of edits. Based on these guidelines, we present a prototype system that allows users to preview and edit multiple visualization versions simultaneously. We demonstrate the utility of the system features by recreating four real-world responsive visualizations from our corpus.
The Struggle for Recognition in Advanced Dementia: Implications for Experience-Centered Design
Sarah Foley (University College Cork , Cork, Ireland)John McCarthy (University College Cork, Cork, Ireland)Nadia Pantidi (University College Cork, Cork, Ireland)
Focusing on the person with advanced dementia as a social being presents a new opportunity for Experience-Centered Design (ECD), opening design to appreciate the agency and intentional actions of the person with advanced dementia. If Human-Computer Interaction is to shift from the predominantly assistive approach to a focus on experience, a theoretical framing that emphasizes the relational nature of selfhood is needed. In this article, we present Recognition Theory—a social theory based on an inter-subjectivist account of the struggle for recognition—to extend ECD approaches for advanced dementia. Focusing on people with advanced dementia, we examine recognition as a social and ethical perspective for establishing and maintaining self. We present a framework for design based on research with people with advanced dementia, experience-centered engagement and social identity, that will support designers to craft opportunities for mutual recognition in the design process and the practice of making.
Chase Lights in the Peripheral View: How the Design of Moving Patterns on an LED Strip Influences the Perception of Speed in an Automotive Context
Alexander Meschtscherjakov (University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria)Christine Döttlinger (University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria)Tim Kaiser (University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria)Manfred Tscheligi (University of Salzburg & AIT, Salzburg & Vienna, Austria)
LEDs on a strip, when turned on and off in a specific order, result in the perception of apparent motion (i.e. beta movement). In the automotive domain such chase lights have been used to alter drivers' perception of driving speed by manipulating the pixel speed of LEDs. We argue that the perceived velocity of beta movement in the peripheral view is not only based on the actual pixel speed but can be influenced by other factors such as frequency, width and brightness of lit LED segments. We conducted a velocity matching experiment (N=25) by systematically varying these three properties, in order to determine their influence on a participant's perceived velocity in a vehicle mock-up. Results show that a higher frequency and stronger brightness increased perceived velocity, whereas segment width had no influence. We discuss how findings may be applied when designing systems that use beta movement to influence the perception of ambient light velocity.
Generating Audio-Visual Slideshows from Text Articles Using Word Concreteness
Mackenzie Leake (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Hijung Valentina Shin (Adobe Research, Cambridge, MA, USA)Joy O. Kim (Adobe Research, San Francisco, CA, USA)Maneesh Agrawala (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)
We present a system that automatically transforms text articles into audio-visual slideshows by leveraging the notion of word concreteness, which measures how strongly a word or phrase is related to some perceptible concept. In a formative study we learn that people not only prefer such audio-visual slideshows but find that the content is easier to understand compared to text articles or text articles augmented with images. We use word concreteness to select search terms and find images relevant to the text. Then, based on the distribution of concrete words and the grammatical structure of an article, we time-align selected images with audio narration obtained through text-to-speech to produce audio-visual slideshows. In a user evaluation we find that our concreteness-based algorithm selects images that are highly relevant to the text. The quality of our slideshows is comparable to slideshows produced manually using standard video editing tools, and people strongly prefer our slideshows to those generated using a simple keyword-search based approach.