The ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (https://chi2020.acm.org/)

Classification of Functional Attention in Video Meetings
Anastasia Kuzminykh (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada)Sean Rintel (Microsoft Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom)
Participants in video meetings have long struggled with asymmetrical attention levels, especially when participants are distributed unevenly. While technological advances offer exciting opportunities to augment remote users' attention, the phenomenological complexity of attention means that to design attention-fostering features we must first understand what aspects of it are functionally meaningful to support. In this paper, we present a functional classification of observable attention for video meetings. The classification was informed by two studies on sense-making and selectiveness of attention in work meetings. It includes categories of attention accessible for technological support, their functions in a meeting process, and meeting-related activities that correspond to these functions. This classification serves as a multi-level representation of attention and informs the design of features aiming to support remote participants' attention in video meetings.
Exploring the Potential of an Intelligent Tutoring System for Sketching Fundamentals
Blake Williford (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA)Matthew Runyon (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA)Wayne Li (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA)Julie Linsey (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA)Tracy Hammond (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA)
Sketching is a practical and useful skill that can benefit communication and problem solving. However, it remains a difficult skill to learn because of low confidence and motivation among students and limited availability for instruction and personalized feedback among teachers. There is an need to improve the educational experience for both groups, and we hypothesized that integrating technology could provide a variety of benefits. We designed and developed an intelligent tutoring system for sketching fundamentals called Sketchtivity, and deployed it in to six existing courses at the high school and university level during the 2017-2018 school year. 268 students used the tool and produced more than 116,000 sketches of basic primitives. We conducted semi-structured interviews with the six teachers who implemented the software, as well as nine students from a course where the tool was used extensively. Using grounded theory, we found ten categories which unveiled the benefits and limitations of integrating an intelligent tutoring system for sketching fundamentals in to existing pedagogy.
UI Dark Patterns and Where to Find Them: A Study on Mobile Applications and User Perception
Linda Di Geronimo (University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)Larissa Braz (University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)Enrico Fregnan (University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)Fabio Palomba (University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)Alberto Bacchelli (University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)
A Dark Pattern (DP) is an interface maliciously crafted to deceive users into performing actions they did not mean to do. In this work, we analyze Dark Patterns in 240 popular mobile apps and conduct an online experiment with 589 users on how they perceive Dark Patterns in such apps. The results of the analysis show that 95% of the analyzed apps contain one or more forms of Dark Patterns and, on average, popular applications include at least seven different types of deceiving interfaces. The online experiment shows that most users do not recognize Dark Patterns, but can perform better in recognizing malicious designs if informed on the issue. We discuss the impact of our work and what measures could be applied to alleviate the issue.
Live Sketchnoting Across Platforms: Exploring the Potential and Limitations of Analogue and Digital Tools
Marina Fernández Camporro (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Nicolai Marquardt (University College London, London, United Kingdom)
Sketchnoting is the process of creating a visual record with combined text and imagery of an event or presentation. Although analogue tools are still the most common method for sketchnoting, the use of digital tools is increasing. We conducted a study to better understand the current practices, techniques, compromises and opportunities of creating both pen&paper and digital sketchnotes. Our research combines insights from semi-structured interviews with the findings from a within-subjects observational study where ten participants created real time sketchnotes of two video presentations on both paper and digital tablet. We report our key findings, categorised into six themes: insights into sense of space; trade-offs with flexibility; choice paradox and cognitive load; matters of perception, accuracy and texture; issues around confidence; and practicalities. We discuss those findings, the potential and limitations of different methods, and implications for the design of future digital sketchnoting tools.
Household Surface Interactions: Understanding User Input Preferences and Perceived Home Experiences
Garreth W. Tigwell (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA)Michael Crabb (University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom)
Households contain a variety of surfaces that are used in a number of activity contexts. As ambient technology becomes commonplace in our homes, it is only a matter of time before these surfaces become linked to computer systems for Household Surface Interaction (HSI). However, little is known about the user experience attached to HSI, and the potential acceptance of HSI within modern homes. To address this problem, we ran a mixed methods user study with 39 participants to examine HSI using nine household surfaces and five common gestures (tap, press, swipe, drag, and pinch). We found that under the right conditions, surfaces with some amount of texture can enhance HSI. Furthermore, perceived good and poor user experience varied among participants for surface type indicating individual preferences. We present findings and design considerations based on surface characteristics and the challenges that users perceive they may have with HSI within their homes.
Enabling Data-Driven API Design with Community Usage Data: A Need-Finding Study
Tianyi Zhang (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA)Björn Hartmann (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA)Miryung Kim (University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA)Elena L. Glassman (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA)
APIs are becoming the fundamental building block of modern software and their usability is crucial to programming efficiency and software quality. Yet API designers find it hard to gather and interpret user feedback on their APIs. To close the gap, we interviewed 23 API designers from 6 companies and 11 open-source projects to understand their practices and needs. The primary way of gathering user feedback is through bug reports and peer reviews, as formal usability testing is prohibitively expensive to conduct in practice. Participants expressed a strong desire to gather real-world use cases and understand users' mental models, but there was a lack of tool support for such needs. In particular, participants were curious about where users got stuck, their workarounds, common mistakes, and unanticipated corner cases. We highlight several opportunities to address those unmet needs, including developing new mechanisms that systematically elicit users' mental models, building mining frameworks that identify recurring patterns beyond shallow statistics about API usage, and exploring alternative design choices made in similar libraries.
Race Yourselves: A Longitudinal Exploration of Self-Competition Between Past, Present, and Future Performances in a VR Exergame
Alexander Michael (University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom)Christof Lutteroth (University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom)
Participating in competitive races can be a thrilling experience for athletes, involving a rush of excitement and sensations of flow, achievement, and self-fulfilment. However, for non-athletes, the prospect of competition is often a scary one which affects intrinsic motivation negatively, especially for less fit, less competitive individuals. We propose a novel method making the positive racing experience accessible to non-athletes using a high-intensity cycling VR exergame: by recording and replaying all their previous gameplay sessions simultaneously, including a projected future performance, players can race against a crowd of "ghost" avatars representing their individual fitness journey. The experience stays relevant and exciting as every race adds a new competitor. A longitudinal study over four weeks and a cross-sectional study found that the new method improves physical performance, intrinsic motivation, and flow compared to a non-competitive exergame. Additionally, the longitudinal study provides insights into the longer-term effects of VR exergames.
AirTouch: 3D-printed Touch-Sensitive Objects Using Pneumatic Sensing
Carlos E. Tejada (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)Raf Ramakers (Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium)Sebastian Boring (Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark)Daniel Ashbrook (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)
3D printing technology can be used to rapidly prototype the look and feel of 3D objects. However, the objects produced are passive. There has been increasing interest in making these objects interactive, yet they often require assembling components or complex calibration. In this paper, we contribute AirTouch, a technique that enables designers to fabricate touch-sensitive objects with minimal assembly and calibration using pneumatic sensing. AirTouch-enabled objects are 3D printed as a single structure using a consumer-level 3D printer. AirTouch uses pre-trained machine learning models to identify interactions with fabricated objects, meaning that there is no calibration required once the object has completed printing. We evaluate our technique using fabricated objects with various geometries and touch sensitive locations, obtaining accuracies of at least 90% with 12 interactive locations.
The Curious Case of the Transdiegetic Cow, or a Mission to Foster Other-Oriented Empathy Through Virtual Reality
Martijn J.L. Kors (Eindhoven University of Technology & Amsterdam University of Applied Science, Eindhoven, Noord Brabant, Netherlands)Erik D. van der Spek (Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Noord Brabant, Netherlands)Julia A. Bopp (University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland)Karel Millenaar (Amsterdam University of Applied Science, Amsterdam, Netherlands)Rutger L. van Teutem (Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands)Gabriele Ferri (Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands)Ben A.M. Schouten (Eindhoven University of Technology & Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Eindhoven & Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Socially aware persuasive games that use immersive technologies often appeal to empathy, prompting users to feel and understand the struggles of another. However, the often sought-after 'standing in another's shoes' experience, in which users virtually inhabit another in distress, may complicate other-oriented empathy. Following a Research through Design approach, we designed for other-oriented empathy – focusing on a partaker-perspective and diegetic reflection – which resulted in Permanent; a virtual reality game designed to foster empathy towards evacuees from the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. We deployed Permanent 'in the wild' and carried out a qualitative study with 78 participants in the Netherlands and Japan to capture user experiences. Content Analysis of the data showed a predominance of other-oriented empathy across countries, and in our Thematic Analysis, we identified the themes of 'Spatial, Other, and Self -Awareness', 'Personal Accounts', 'Ambivalence', and 'Transdiegetic Items', resulting in design insights for fostering other-oriented empathy through virtual reality.
Investigating Collaborative Exploration of Design Alternatives on a Wall-Sized Display
Yujiro Okuya (Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, LIMSI VENISE team & Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Inria, LRI, Orsay, France)Olivier Gladin (Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Inria, LRI, Orsay, France)Nicolas Ladevèze (Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, LIMSI, VENISE team, Orsay, France)Cédric Fleury (Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Inria, LRI, Orsay, France)Patrick Bourdot (Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, LIMSI VENISE team, Orsay, France)
Industrial design review is an iterative process which mainly relies on two steps involving many stakeholders: design discussion and CAD data adjustment. We investigate how a wall-sized display could be used to merge these two steps by allowing multidisciplinary collaborators to simultaneously generate and explore design alternatives. We designed ShapeCompare based on the feedback from a usability study. It enables multiple users to compute and distribute CAD data with touch interaction. To assess the benefit of the wall-sized display in such context, we ran a controlled experiment which aims to compare ShapeCompare with a visualization technique suitable for standard screens. The results show that pairs of participants performed a constraint solving task faster and used more deictic instructions with ShapeCompare. From these findings, we draw generic recommendations for collaborative exploration of alternatives.
Virtual Reality Games for People Using Wheelchairs
Kathrin Gerling (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium)Patrick Dickinson (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom)Kieran Hicks (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom)Liam Mason (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom)Adalberto L. Simeone (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium)Katta Spiel (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium)
Virtual Reality (VR) holds the promise of providing engaging embodied experiences, but little is known about how people with disabilities engage with it. We explore challenges and opportunities of VR gaming for wheelchair users. First, we present findings from a survey that received 25 responses and gives insights into wheelchair users' motives to (non-) engage with VR and their experiences. Drawing from this survey, we derive design implications which we tested through implementation and qualitative evaluation of three full-body VR game prototypes with 18 participants. Our results show that VR gaming engages wheelchair users, though nuanced consideration is required for the design of embodied immersive experiences for minority bodies, and we illustrate how designers can create meaningful, positive experiences.
Debugging Database Queries: A Survey of Tools, Techniques, and Users
Sneha Gathani (University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, USA)Peter Lim (University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, USA)Leilani Battle (University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, USA)
Database management systems (or DBMSs) have been around for decades, and yet are still difficult to use, particularly when trying to identify and fix errors in user programs (or queries). We seek to understand what methods have been proposed to help people debug database queries, and whether these techniques have ultimately been adopted by DBMSs (and users). We conducted an interdisciplinary review of 112 papers and tools from the database, visualisation and HCI communities. To better understand whether academic and industry approaches are meeting the needs of users, we interviewed 20 database users (and some designers), and found surprising results. In particular, there seems to be a wide gulf between users' debugging strategies and the functionality implemented in existing DBMSs, as well as proposed in the literature. In response, we propose new design guidelines to help system designers to build features that more closely match users debugging strategies.
Defining Haptic Experience: Foundations for Understanding, Communicating, and Evaluating HX
Erin Kim (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada)Oliver Schneider (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada)
Haptic technology is maturing, with expectations and evidence that it will contribute to user experience (UX). However, we have very little understanding about how haptic technology can influence people's experience. Researchers and designers need a way to understand, communicate, and evaluate haptic technology's effect on UX. From a literature review and two studies – one with haptics novices, the other with expert hapticians – we developed a theoretical model of the factors that constitute a good haptic experience (HX). We define HX and propose its constituent factors: design parameters of Timeliness, Density, Intensity, and Timbre; the cross-cutting concern of Personalization; usability requirements of Utility, Causality, Consistency, and Saliency; and experiential factors of Harmony, Expressivity, Autotelics, Immersion, and Realism as guiding constructs important for haptic experience. This model will help guide design and research of haptic systems, inform language around haptics, and provide the basis for evaluative instruments, such as checklists, heuristics, or questionnaires.
Trigeminal-based Temperature Illusions
Jas Brooks (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA)Steven Nagels (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA)Pedro Lopes (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA)
We explore a temperature illusion that uses low-powered electronics and enables the miniaturization of simple warm and cool sensations. Our illusion relies on the properties of certain scents, such as the coolness of mint or hotness of peppers. These odors trigger not only the olfactory bulb, but also the nose's trigeminal nerve, which has receptors that respond to both temperature and chemicals. To exploit this, we engineered a wearable device based on micropumps and an atomizer that emits up to three custom-made "thermal" scents directly to the user's nose. Breathing in these scents causes the user to feel warmer or cooler. We demonstrate how our device renders warmth and cooling sensations in virtual experiences. In our first study, we evaluated six candidate "thermal" scents. We found two hot-cold pairs, with one pair being less identifiable by odor. In our second study, pParticipants rated VR experiences with our device trigeminal stimulants as significantly warmer or cooler than the baseline conditions. Lastly, we believe this offers an alternative to existing thermal feedback devices, which unfortunately rely on power-hungry heat-lamps or Peltier-elements.
Designing IoT Resources to Support Outdoor Play for Children
Thomas Dylan (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom)Gavin Wood (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom)Abigail C. Durrant (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom)John Vines (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom)Pablo E. Torres (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Philip I. N. Ulrich (Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, United Kingdom)Mutlu Cukurova (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Amanda Carr (Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, United Kingdom)Sena Çerçi (Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom)Shaun Lawson (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom)
We describe a Research-through-Design (RtD) project that explores the Internet of Things (IoT) as a resource for children's free play outdoors. Based on initial insights from a design ethnography, we developed four RtD prototypes for social play in different scenarios of use outdoors, including congregating on a street or in a park to play physical games with IoT. We observed these prototypes in use by children in their free play in two community settings, and report on the qualitative analysis of our fieldwork. Our findings highlight the designs' material qualities that encouraged social and physical play under certain conditions, suggesting social affordances that are central to the success of IoT designs for free play outdoors. We provide directions for future research that addresses the challenges faced when deploying IoT with children, contributing new considerations for interaction design with children in outdoor settings and free play contexts.
Exploring The Future of Data-Driven Product Design
Katerina Gorkovenko (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)Daniel J. Burnett (Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom)James K. Thorp (Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom)Daniel Richards (Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom)Dave Murray-Rust (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
Connected devices present new opportunities to advance design through data collection in the wild, similar to the way digital services evolve through analytics. However, it is still unclear how live data transmitted by connected devices informs the design of these products, going beyond performance optimisation to support creative practices. Design can be enriched by data captured by connected devices, from usage logs to environmental sensors, and data about the devices and people around them. Through a series of workshops, this paper contributes industry and academia perspectives on the future of data-driven product design. We highlight HCI challenges, issues and implications, including sensemaking and the generation of design insight. We further challenge current notions of data-driven design and envision ways in which future HCI research can develop ways to work with data in the design process in a connected, rich, human manner.
Evaluating a Personalizable, Inconspicuous Vibrotactile(PIV) Breathing Pacer for In-the-Moment Affect Regulation
Pardis Miri (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA)Emily Jusuf (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA)Andero Uusberg (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Horia Margarit (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA)Robert Flory (Intel, Hillsboro, OR, USA)Katherine Isbister (University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA)Keith Marzullo (University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA)James J. Gross (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)
Given the prevalence and adverse impact of anxiety, there is considerable interest in using technology to regulate anxiety. Evaluating the efficacy of such technology in terms of both the average effect (the intervention efficacy) and the heterogeneous effect (for whom and in what context the intervention was effective) is of paramount importance. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of PIV, a personalized breathing pacer, in reducing anxiety in the presence of a cognitive stressor. We also quantify the relation between our specific stressor and PIV-user engagement. To our knowledge, this is the first mixed-design study of a vibrotactile affect regulation technology which accounts for a specific stressor and for individual differences in relation to the technology's efficacy. Guidelines in this paper can be applied for designing and evaluating other affect regulation technologies.
A Literature Review of Quantitative Persona Creation
Joni Salminen (Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University & University of Turku, Doha, Qatar)Kathleen Guan (Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA)Soon-Gyo Jung (Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar)Shammur A. Chowdhury (Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar)Bernard J. Jansen (Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar)
Quantitative persona creation (QPC) has tremendous potential, as HCI researchers and practitioners can leverage user data from online analytics and digital media platforms to better understand their users and customers. However, there is a lack of a systematic overview of the QPC methods and progress made, with no standard methodology or known best practices. To address this gap, we review 49 QPC research articles from 2005 to 2019. Results indicate three stages of QPC research: Emergence, Diversification, and Sophistication. Sharing resources, such as datasets, code, and algorithms, is crucial to achieving the next stage (Maturity). For practitioners, we provide guiding questions for assessing QPC readiness in organizations.
BodyLights: Open-Ended Augmented Feedback to Support Training Towards a Correct Exercise Execution
Laia Turmo Vidal (Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)Hui Zhu (Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)Abraham Riego-Delgado (Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)
Technologies targeting a correct execution of physical training exercises typically use pre-determined models for what they consider correct, automatizing instruction and feedback. This falls short on catering to diverse trainees and exercises. We explore an alternative design approach, in which technology provides open-ended feedback for trainers and trainees to use during training. With a personal trainer we designed the augmentation of 18 strength training exercises with BodyLights: 3D printed wearable projecting lights that augment body movement and orientation. To study them, 15 trainees at different skill levels trained three times with our personal trainer and BodyLights. Our findings show that BodyLights catered to a wide range of trainees and exercises, and supported understanding, executing and correcting diverse technique parameters. We discuss design features and methodological aspects that allowed this; and what open-ended feedback offered in comparison to current technology approaches to support training towards a correct exercise execution.
ScrAPIr: Making Web Data APIs Accessible to End Users
Tarfah Alrashed (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Jumana Almahmoud (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Amy X. Zhang (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)David R. Karger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)
Users have long struggled to extract and repurpose data from websites by laboriously copying or scraping content from web pages. An alternative is to write scripts that pull data through APIs. This provides a cleaner way to access data than scraping; however, APIs are effortful for programmers and nigh-impossible for non-programmers to use. In this work, we empower users to access APIs without programming. We evolve a schema for declaratively specifying how to interact with a data API. We then develop ScrAPIr: a standard query GUI that enables users to fetch data through any API for which a specification exists, and a second GUI that lets users author and share the specification for a given API. From a lab evaluation, we find that even non-programmers can access APIs using ScrAPIr, while programmers can access APIs 3.8 times faster on average using ScrAPIr than using programming.
E-Textile Microinteractions: Augmenting Twist with Flick, Slide and Grasp Gestures for Soft Electronics
Alex Olwal (Google Research, Mountain View, CA, USA)Thad Starner (Google Research, Mountain View, CA, USA)Gowa Mainini (Google Research, Mountain View, CA, USA)
E-textile microinteractions advance cord-based interfaces by enabling the simultaneous use of precise continuous control and casual discrete gestures. We leverage the recently introduced I/O Braid sensing architecture to enable a series of user studies and experiments which help design suitable interactions and a real-time gesture recognition pipeline. Informed by a gesture elicitation study with 36 participants, we developed a user-dependent classifier for eight discrete gestures with 94% accuracy for 12 participants. In a formal evaluation we show that we can enable precise manipulation with the same architecture. Our quantitative targeting experiment suggests that twisting is faster than existing headphone button controls and is comparable in speed to a capacitive touch surface. Qualitative interview feedback indicates a preference for I/O Braid's interaction over that of in-line headphone controls. Our applications demonstrate how continuous and discrete gestures can be combined to form new, integrated e-textile microinteraction techniques for real-time continuous control, discrete actions and mode switching.
Get a Grip: Evaluating Grip Gestures for VR Input using a Lightweight Pen
Nianlong Li (Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)Teng Han (Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)Feng Tian (Institute of software, Chinese Academy of Sciences & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)Jin Huang (Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)Minghui Sun (Jilin University, Changchun, China)Pourang Irani (University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada)Jason Alexander (Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom)
The use of Virtual Reality (VR) in applications such as data analysis, artistic creation, and clinical settings requires high precision input. However, the current design of handheld controllers, where wrist rotation is the primary input approach, does not exploit the human fingers' capability for dexterous movements for high precision pointing and selection. To address this issue, we investigated the characteristics and potential of using a pen as a VR input device. We conducted two studies. The first examined which pen grip allowed the largest range of motion---we found a tripod grip at the rear end of the shaft met this criterion. The second study investigated target selection via 'poking' and ray-casting, where we found the pen grip outperformed the traditional wrist-based input in both cases. Finally, we demonstrate potential applications enabled by VR pen input and grip postures.
Designing and Evaluating 'In the Same Boat', A Game of Embodied Synchronization for Enhancing Social Play
Raquel Breejon Robinson (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada)Elizabeth Reid (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada)James Collin Fey (University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA)Ansgar E. Depping (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada)Katherine Isbister (University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA)Regan L. Mandryk (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada)
Social closeness is important for health and well-being, but is difficult to maintain over a distance. Games can help connect people by strengthening existing relationships or creating new ones through shared playful experiences. We present the design and evaluation of 'In the Same Boat' (ITSB), a two-player infinite runner designed to foster social closeness in distributed dyads. ITSB leverages the synchronization of both players' input to steer a canoe down a river and avoid obstacles. We created two versions: embodied controls, which use players' physiological signals (breath rate, facial expressions), and standard keyboard controls. Results from a study with 35 dyads indicate that ITSB fostered affiliation, and while embodied controls were less intuitive, people enjoyed them more. Further, photos of the dyads were rated as happier and closer in the embodied condition, indicating the potential of embodied controls to foster social closeness in synchronized play over a distance.
When Design Novices and LEGO^(®) Meet: Stimulating Creative Thinking for Interface Design
Simon Bourdeau (ESG-UQAM, Montréal, PQ, Canada)Annemarie Lesage (HEC Montréal, Montréal, PQ, Canada)Béatrice Caron (HEC Montréal, Montréal, PQ, Canada)Pierre-Majorique Léger (HEC Montréal, Montréal, PQ, Canada)
Design thinking is an iterative, human-centered approach to innovation. Its success rests on collaboration within a multidisciplinary project team going through cycles of divergent and convergent ideations. In these teams, nondesigners risk diminishing the divergent reach because they are generally reluctant to sketch, thus missing out on theambiguous, imprecise early conceptual divergent phases. We hypothesized that LEGO^(®) could advantageously be a substitute to sketching. In this comparative study, 44 nondesigners randomly paired in 22 dyads did two conceptual ideations of healthcare landing pages, one using pen/paper (spontaneously writing words on sticky notes) and the other using LEGO, assessed through Torrance and Guilford frameworks for divergent thinking. Results show that LEGO interfaces gathered significantly higher divergent thinking scores because their concepts were significantly more elaborated. Furthermore, when using LEGO, teams who generated more elements were likely to also generate more ideas, more categories of ideas and more original ideas.
Modeling Human Visual Search Performance on Realistic Webpages Using Analytical and Deep Learning Methods
Arianna Yuan (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Yang Li (Google Research, Mountain View, CA, USA)
Modeling visual search not only offers an opportunity to predict the usability of an interface before actually testing it on real users but also advances scientific understanding about human behavior. In this work, we first conduct a set of analyses on a large-scale dataset of visual search tasks on realistic webpages. We then present a deep neural network that learns to predict the scannability of webpage content, i.e., how easy it is for a user to find a specific target. Our model leverages both heuristic-based features such as target size and unstructured features such as raw image pixels. This approach allows us to model complex interactions that might be involved in a realistic visual search task, which can not be achieved by traditional analytical models. We analyze the model behavior to offer our insights into how the salience map learned by the model aligns with human intuition.
Relationship Between Visual Complexity and Aesthetics of Webpages
Aliaksei Miniukovich (University of Trento, Trento, Italy)Maurizio Marchese (University of Trento, Trento, Italy)
Substantial HCI research investigated the relationship between webpage complexity and aesthetics, but without a definitive conclusion. Some research showed an inverse linear correlation, some other showed an inverted u-shaped curve, while the rest showed no relationship at all. Such a lack of clarity complicates hypothesis formulation and result interpretation for future research, and lowers the reliability and generalizability of potential advice for Web design practice. We re-collected complexity and aesthetics ratings for five datasets previously used in webpage aesthetics and complexity research. The results were mixed, but suggested an inverse linear relationship with a weaker u-shaped sub-component. A subsequent visual inspection of revealed several confounding factors that may have led to the mixed results, including some webpages looking broken or archaic. The second data collection showed that accounting for these factors generally eliminates the u-shaped tendency of the complexity-aesthetics relationship, at least, for a relatively homogeneous sample of English-speaking participants.
Autocomplete Element Fields
Chen-Yuan Hsu (Bournemouth University, Poole, United Kingdom)Li-Yi Wei (Adobe Research, San Jose, CA, USA)Lihua You (Bournemouth University, Poole, United Kingdom)Jian Jun Zhang (Bournemouth University, Poole, United Kingdom)
Aggregate elements are ubiquitous in natural and man-made objects. Interactively authoring these elements with varying anisotropy and deformability can require high artistic skills and manual labor. To reduce input workload and enhance output quality, we present an autocomplete system that can help users distribute and align such elements over different domains. Through a brushing interface, users can place and mix a few elements, and let our system automatically populate more elements for the remaining output. Furthermore, aggregate elements often require proper direction/scalar fields for proper arrangements, but fully specifying such fields across entire domains can be difficult or inconvenient for ordinary users. To address this usability challenge, we formulate element fields that can smoothly orient all the elements based on partial user specifications without requiring full input fields in any step. We validate our prototype system with a pilot user study and show applications in design, collage, and modeling.
MoveVR: Enabling Multiform Force Feedback in Virtual Reality using Household Cleaning Robot
Yuntao Wang (Tsinghua University & University of Washington, Beijing, China)Zichao (Tyson) Chen (Tsinghua University & University of Washington, Beijing, China)Hanchuan Li (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA)Zhengyi Cao (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China)Huiyi Luo (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China)Tengxiang Zhang (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)Ke Ou (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China)John Raiti (University of Washington, Bellevue, WA, USA)Chun Yu (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China)Shwetak Patel (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)Yuanchun Shi (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China)
Haptic feedback can significantly enhance the realism and immersiveness of virtual reality (VR) systems. In this paper, we propose MoveVR, a technique that enables realistic, multiform force feedback in VR leveraging commonplace cleaning robots. MoveVR can generate tension, resistance, impact and material rigidity force feedback with multiple levels of force intensity and directions. This is achieved by changing the robot's moving speed, rotation, position as well as the carried proxies. We demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of MoveVR through interactive VR gaming. In our quantitative and qualitative evaluation studies, participants found that MoveVR provides more realistic and enjoyable user experience when compared to commercially available haptic solutions such as vibrotactile haptic systems.
"How do I make this thing smile?": An Inventory of Expressive Nonverbal Communication in Commercial Social Virtual Reality Platforms
Theresa Jean Tanenbaum (University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA)Nazely Hartoonian (University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA)Jeffrey Bryan (University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA)
Despite the proliferation of platforms for social Virtual Reality (VR) communicating emotional expression via an avatar remains a significant design challenge. In order to better understand the design space for expressive Nonverbal Communication (NVC) in social VR we undertook an inventory of the ten most prominent social VR platforms. Our inventory identifies the dominant design strategies for movement, facial control, and gesture in commercial VR applications, and identifies opportunities and challenges for future design and research into social expression in VR. Specifically, we highlight the paucity of interaction paradigms for facial expression and the near nonexistence of meaningful control over ambient aspects of nonverbal communication such as posture, pose, and social status.
CheXplain: Enabling Physicians to Explore and Understand Data-Driven, AI-Enabled Medical Imaging Analysis
Yao Xie (University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA)Melody Chen (University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA)David Kao (University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA)Ge Gao (University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA)Xiang 'Anthony' Chen (University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA)
The recent development of data-driven AI promises to automate medical diagnosis; however, most AI functions as 'black boxes' to physicians with limited computational knowledge. Using medical imaging as a point of departure, we conducted three iterations of design activities to formulate CheXplain — a system that enables physicians to explore and understand AI-enabled chest X-ray analysis: (i) a paired survey between referring physicians and radiologists reveals whether, when, and what kinds of explanations are needed; (ii) a low-fidelity prototype co-designed with three physicians formulates eight key features; and (iii) a high-fidelity prototype evaluated by another six physicians provides detailed summative insights on how each feature enables the exploration and understanding of AI. We summarize by discussing recommendations for future work to design and implement explainable medical AI systems that encompass four recurring themes: motivation, constraint, explanation, and justification.
SleepBandits: Guided Flexible Self-Experiments for Sleep
Nediyana Daskalova (Brown University, Providence, RI, USA)Jina Yoon (Brown University, Providence, RI, USA)Yibing Wang (Brown University, Providence, RI, USA)Cintia Araujo (Brown University, Providence, RI, USA)Guillermo Beltran (Brown University, Providence, RI, USA)Nicole Nugent (Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI, USA)John McGeary (Providence VA Medical Center, Providence, RI, USA)Joseph Jay Williams (University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada)Jeff Huang (Brown University, Providence, RI, USA)
Self-experiments allow people to explore what behavioral changes lead to improved health and wellness. However, it is challenging to run such experiments in a scientifically valid way that is also flexible and able to accommodate the realities of daily life. We present a set of design principles for guided self-experiments that aim to lower this barrier to self-experimentation. We demonstrate the value of the principles by implementing them in SleepBandits, an integrated system that includes a smartphone application for sleep experiments. SleepBandits guides users through the steps of a single-case experiment, automatically collecting data from the built-in sensors and user input and calculating and presenting results in real-time. We released SleepBandits to the Google Play Store and people voluntarily downloaded and used it. Based on the data from 365 active users from this in-the-wild study, we discuss opportunities and challenges with the design principles and the SleepBandits system.
IoT Data in the Home: Observing Entanglements and Drawing New Encounters
Audrey Desjardins (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)Heidi R. Biggs (Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA)Cayla Key (University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom)Jeremy E. Viny (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)
Internet of Things (IoT) technologies for the home are gaining in popularity, generating exponential data byproducts. Yet, everyday relationships between home dwellers and domestic IoT data often remain secondary interactions, preventing deeper understanding and awareness of data tracked in the home. Our paper offers a design ethnography and design inquiry which examine these human-data entanglements. Findings from working with 10 inhabitants who interact with their IoT data illustrate five characteristics of current data encounters: manifesting, inquiring, exposing, repositioning, and broadening. In response, we used speculative sketches to refine, refract and complicate these encounters. We argue that data do not have to be laborious, tidy or the byproduct of a service, but rather lively and affecting. We further suggest new modes of engagement with data which expand or step away from self-improvement and reflection: through diverse acts of noticing, by allowing data to remain invisible, and by embracing imaginative practices.
Autonomous Vehicle-Cyclist Interaction: Peril and Promise
Ming Hou (University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada)Karthik Mahadevan (University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada)Sowmya Somanath (University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada)Ehud Sharlin (University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada)Lora Oehlberg (University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada)
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will redefine interactions between road users. Presently, cyclists and drivers communicate through implicit cues (vehicle motion) and explicit but imprecise signals (hand gestures, horns). Future AVs could consistently communicate awareness and intent and other feedback to cyclists based on their sensor data. We present an exploration of AV-cyclist interaction, starting with preliminary design studies which informed the implementation of an immersive VR AV-cyclist simulator, and the design and evaluation of a number of AV-cyclist interfaces. Our findings suggest that AV-cyclist interfaces can improve rider confidence in lane merging scenarios. We contribute an AV-cyclist immersive simulator, insights on trade-offs of various aspects of AV-cyclist interaction design including modalities, location, and complexity, and positive results suggesting improved rider confidence due to AV-cyclist interaction. While we are encouraged by the potential positive impact AV-cyclist interfaces can have on cyclist culture, we also emphasize the risks over-reliance can pose to cyclists.
Drone Chi: Somaesthetic Human-Drone Interaction
Joseph La Delfa (Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia)Mehmet Aydın Baytaş (Qualisys AB, Gothenburg, Sweden)Rakesh Patibanda (Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia)Hazel Ngari (Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia)Rohit Ashok Khot (RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia)Florian 'Floyd' Mueller (Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia)
Somaesthetics — motivated by improving life quality via appreciation for bodily and sensory experiences — is increasingly influencing HCI designs. Investigating the potential of drones as a material for somaesthetic HCI, we designed Drone Chi: a Tai Chi-inspired close-range human-drone interaction experience. The design process for Drone Chi has been informed by the soma design approach and the Somaesthetic Appreciation concept from HCI literature. The artifact expands somaesthetic HCI by exemplifying dynamic and intimate somaesthetic interactions with a robotic design material, and body movements in expansive 3D space. To characterize the Drone Chi experience, we conducted an empirical study with 32 participants. Analysis of participant accounts revealed 4 themes that articulate different aspects of the experience: Looping Mental States, Environment, Agency vs. Control, and Physical Narratives. From these accounts and our craft knowledge, we derive 5 design implications to guide the development of movement-based close-range drone interactions.
Outline Pursuits: Gaze-assisted Selection of Occluded Objects in Virtual Reality
Ludwig Sidenmark (Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom)Christopher Clarke (Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom)Xuesong Zhang (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium)Jenny Phu (Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany)Hans Gellersen (Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark)
In 3D environments, objects can be difficult to select when they overlap, as this affects available target area and increases selection ambiguity. We introduce Outline Pursuits which extends a primary pointing modality for gaze-assisted selection of occluded objects. Candidate targets within a pointing cone are presented with an outline that is traversed by a moving stimulus. This affords completion of the selection by gaze attention to the intended target's outline motion, detected by matching the user's smooth pursuit eye movement. We demonstrate two techniques implemented based on the concept, one with a controller as the primary pointer, and one in which Outline Pursuits are combined with head pointing for hands-free selection. Compared with conventional raycasting, the techniques require less movement for selection as users do not need to reposition themselves for a better line of sight, and selection time and accuracy are less affected when targets become highly occluded.
Checklist Design Reconsidered: Understanding Checklist Compliance and Timing of Interactions
Leah Kulp (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA)Aleksandra Sarcevic (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA)Yinan Zheng (Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA)Megan Cheng (Children's National Health System, Washington, DC, USA)Emily Alberto (Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA)Randall Burd (Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA)
We examine the association between user interactions with a checklist and task performance in a time-critical medical setting. By comparing 98 logs from a digital checklist for trauma resuscitation with activity logs generated by video review, we identified three non-compliant checklist use behaviors: failure to check items for completed tasks, falsely checking items when tasks were not performed, and inaccurately checking items for incomplete tasks. Using video review, we found that user perceptions of task completion were often misaligned with clinical practices that guided activity coding, thereby contributing to non-compliant check-offs. Our analysis of associations between different contexts and the timing of check-offs showed longer delays when (1) checklist users were absent during patient arrival, (2) patients had penetrating injuries, and (3) resuscitations were assigned to the highest acuity. We discuss opportunities for reconsidering checklist designs to reduce non-compliant checklist use.
Designing Ambient Narrative-Based Interfaces to Reflect and Motivate Physical Activity
Elizabeth L. Murnane (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Xin Jiang (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Anna Kong (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Michelle Park (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Weili Shi (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Connor Soohoo (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Luke Vink (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Iris Xia (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Xin Yu (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)John Yang-Sammataro (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Grace Young (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Jenny Zhi (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)Paula Moya (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)James A. Landay (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA)
Numerous technologies now exist for promoting more active lifestyles. However, while quantitative data representations (e.g., charts, graphs, and statistical reports) typify most health tools, growing evidence suggests such feedback can not only fail to motivate behavior but may also harm self-integrity and fuel negative mindsets about exercise. Our research seeks to devise alternative, more qualitative schemes for encoding personal information. In particular, this paper explores the design of data-driven narratives, given the intuitive and persuasive power of stories. We present WhoIsZuki, a smartphone application that visualizes physical activities and goals as components of a multi-chapter quest, where the main character's progress is tied to the user's. We report on our design process involving online surveys, in-lab studies, and in-the-wild deployments, aimed at refining the interface and the narrative and gaining a deep understanding of people's experiences with this type of feedback. From these insights, we contribute recommendations to guide future development of narrative-based applications for motivating healthy behavior.
Gaiters: Exploring Skin Stretch Feedback on Legs for Enhancing Virtual Reality Experiences
Chi Wang (National Taiwan University & National Chiao Tung University, Taipei & Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Da-Yuan Huang (National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Shuo-Wen Hsu (National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Cheng-Lung Lin (National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Yeu-Luen Chiu (National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Chu-En Hou (National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Roc)Bing-Yu Chen (National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Roc)
We propose generating two-dimensional skin stretch feedback on the user's legs. Skin stretch is useful cutaneous feedback to induce the perception of virtual textures and illusory forces and to deliver directional cues. This feedback has been applied to the head, body, and upper limbs to simulate rich physical properties in virtual reality (VR). However, how to expand the benefit of skin stretch feedback and apply it to the lower limbs, remains to be explored. Our first two psychophysical studies examined the minimum changes in skin stretch distance and stretch angle that are perceivable by participants. We then designed and implemented Gaiters, a pair of ungrounded, leg-worn devices, each of which is able to generate multiple two-dimensional skin stretches on the skin of the user's leg. With Gaiters, we conducted an exploratory study to understand participants' experiences when coupling skin stretch patterns with various lower limb actions. The results indicate that rich haptic experiences can be created by our prototype. Finally, a user evaluation indicates that participants enjoyed the experiences when using Gaiters and considered skin stretch as compelling haptic feedback on the legs.
ShArc: A Geometric Technique for Multi-Bend/Shape Sensing
Fereshteh Shahmiri (Gerogia Institute of Technology & Tactual Labs Co., Atlanta, GA, USA)Paul H. Dietz (Tactual Labs Co., Redmond, WA, USA)
We present ShArc, a precision, geometric measurement technique for building multi-bend/shape sensors. ShArc sensors are made from flexible strips that can be dynamically formed into complex curves in a plane. They measure local curvature by noting the relative shift between the inner and outer layers of the sensor at many points and model shape as a series of connected arcs. Unlike jointed systems where angular errors sum with each joint measured, ShArc sensors do not accumulate angular error as more measurement points are added. This allows for inexpensive, robust sensors that can accurately model curves with multiple bends. To demonstrate the efficacy of this technique, we developed a capacitive ShArc sensor and evaluated its performance. We conclude with examples of how ShArc sensors can be employed in applications like gesture input devices, user interface controllers, human motion tracking and angular measurement of free-form objects.
Augmented Reality for Older Adults: Exploring Acceptability of Virtual Coaches for Home-based Balance Training in an Aging Population
Fariba Mostajeran (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany)Frank Steinicke (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany)Oscar Javier Ariza Nunez (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany)Dimitrios Gatsios (University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece)Dimitrios Fotiadis (University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece)
Balance training has been shown to be effective in reducing risks of falling, which is a major concern for older adults. Usually, exercise programs are individually prescribed and monitored by physiotherapeutic or medical experts. Unfortunately, supervision and motivation of older adults during home-based exercises cannot be provided on a large scale, in particular, considering an ageing population. Augmented reality (AR) in combination with virtual coaches could provide a reasonable solution to this challenge.<br>We present a first investigation of the acceptance of an AR coaching system for balance training, which can be performed at home. In a human-centered design approach we developed several mock-ups and prototypes, and evaluated them with 76 older adults. The results suggest that older adults find the system encouraging and stimulating. The virtual coach is perceived as an alive, calm, intelligent, and friendly human. However, usability of the entire AR system showed a significant negative correlation with participants' age.
Connecting Distributed Families: Camera Work for Three-party Mobile Video Calls
Yumei Gan (The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China)Christian Greiffenhagen (The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China)Stuart Reeves (University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom)
Mobile video calling technologies have become a critical link to connect distributed families. However, these technologies have been principally designed for video calling between two parties, whereas family video calls involve young children often comprise three parties, namely a co-present adult (a parent or grandparent) helping with the interaction between the child and another remote adult. We examine how manipulation of phone cameras and management of co-present children is used to stage parent-child interactions. We present results from a video-ethnographic study based on 40 video recordings of video calls between 'left-behind' children and their migrant parents in China. Our analysis reveals a key practice of 'facilitation work', performed by grandparents, as a crucial feature of three-party calls. Facilitation work offers a new concept for HCI's broader conceptualisation of mobile video calling, suggesting revisions that design might take into consideration for triadic interactions in general.
Informing the Design of Privacy-Empowering Tools for the Connected Home
William Seymour (University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom)Martin J. Kraemer (University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom)Reuben Binns (University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom)Max Van Kleek (University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom)
Connected devices in the home represent a potentially grave new privacy threat due to their unfettered access to the most personal spaces in people's lives. Prior work has shown that despite concerns about such devices, people often lack sufficient awareness, understanding, or means of taking effective action. To explore the potential for new tools that support such needs directly we developed Aretha, a privacy assistant technology probe that combines a network disaggregator, personal tutor, and firewall, to empower end-users with both the knowledge and mechanisms to control disclosures from their homes. We deployed Aretha in three households over six weeks, with the aim of understanding how this combination of capabilities might enable users to gain awareness of data disclosures by their devices, form educated privacy preferences, and to block unwanted data flows. The probe, with its novel affordances—and its limitations—prompted users to co-adapt, finding new control mechanisms and suggesting new approaches to address the challenge of regaining privacy in the connected home.
Predicting and Diagnosing User Engagement with Mobile UI Animation via a Data-Driven Approach
Ziming Wu (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China)Yulun Jiang (Wuhan University, Wuhan, China)Yiding Liu (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China)Xiaojuan Ma (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China)
Animation, a common design element in user interfaces (UI), can impact user engagement (UE) with mobile applications. To avoid impairing UE due to improper design of animation, designers rely on resource-intensive evaluation methods like user studies or expert reviews. To alleviate this burden, we propose a data-driven approach to assisting designers in examining UE issues with their animation designs. We first crowdsource UE assessments of mobile UI animations. Based on the collected data, we then build a novel deep learning model that captures both spatial and temporal features of animations to predict their UE levels. Evaluations show that our model achieves a reasonable accuracy. We further leverage the animation feature encoded by our model and a sample set of expert reviews to derive potential UE issues of a particular animation. Finally, we develop a proof-of-concept tool and evaluate its potential usage in actual design practices with experts
Capturing Experts' Mental Models to Organize a Collection of Haptic Devices: Affordances Outweigh Attributes
Hasti Seifi (Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart, Germany)Michael Oppermann (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada)Julia Bullard (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada)Karon E MacLean (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada)Katherine J. Kuchenbecker (Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart, Germany)
Humans rely on categories to mentally organize and understand sets of complex objects. One such set, haptic devices, has myriad technical attributes that affect user experience in complex ways. Seeking an effective navigation structure for a large online collection, we elicited expert mental categories for grounded force-feedback haptic devices: 18 experts (9 device creators, 9 interaction designers) reviewed, grouped, and described 75 devices according to their similarity in a custom card-sorting study. From the resulting quantitative and qualitative data, we identify prominent patterns of tagging versus binning, and we report 6 uber-attributes that the experts used to group the devices, favoring affordances over device specifications. Finally, we derive 7 device categories and 9 subcategories that reflect the imperfect yet semantic nature of the expert mental models. We visualize these device categories and similarities in the online haptic collection, and we offer insights for studying expert understanding of other human-centered technology.
Improving Crowd-Supported GUI Testing with Structural Guidance
Yan Chen (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA)Maulishree Pandey (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA)Jean Y. Song (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA)Walter S. Lasecki (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA)Steve Oney (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA)
Crowd testing is an emerging practice in Graphical User Interface (GUI) testing, where developers recruit a large number of crowd testers to test GUI features. It is often easier and faster than a dedicated quality assurance team, and its output is more realistic than that of automated testing. However, crowds of testers working in parallel tend to focus on a small set of commonly-used User Interface (UI) navigation paths, which can lead to low test coverage and redundant effort. In this paper, we introduce two techniques to increase crowd testers' coverage: interactive event-flow graphs and GUI-level guidance. The interactive event-flow graphs track and aggregate every tester's interactions into a single directed graph that visualizes the cases that have already been explored. Crowd testers can interact with the graphs to find new navigation paths and increase the coverage of the created tests. We also use the graphs to augment the GUI (GUI-level guidance) to help testers avoid only exploring common paths. Our evaluation with 30 crowd testers on 11 different test pages shows that the techniques can help testers avoid redundant effort while also increasing untrained testers' coverage by 55%. These techniques can help us develop more robust software that works in more mission-critical settings not only by performing more thorough testing with the same effort that has been put in before but also by integrating them into different parts of the development pipeline to make more reliable software in the early development stage.
The Struggle for Recognition in Advanced Dementia: Implications for Experience-Centered Design
Sarah Foley (University College Cork , Cork, Ireland)John McCarthy (University College Cork, Cork, Ireland)Nadia Pantidi (University College Cork, Cork, Ireland)
Focusing on the person with advanced dementia as a social being presents a new opportunity for Experience-Centered Design (ECD), opening design to appreciate the agency and intentional actions of the person with advanced dementia. If Human-Computer Interaction is to shift from the predominantly assistive approach to a focus on experience, a theoretical framing that emphasizes the relational nature of selfhood is needed. In this article, we present Recognition Theory—a social theory based on an inter-subjectivist account of the struggle for recognition—to extend ECD approaches for advanced dementia. Focusing on people with advanced dementia, we examine recognition as a social and ethical perspective for establishing and maintaining self. We present a framework for design based on research with people with advanced dementia, experience-centered engagement and social identity, that will support designers to craft opportunities for mutual recognition in the design process and the practice of making.
Techniques for Flexible Responsive Visualization Design
Jane Hoffswell (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)Wilmot Li (Adobe Research, Seattle, WA, USA)Zhicheng Liu (Adobe Research, Seattle, WA, USA)
Responsive visualizations adapt to effectively present information based on the device context. Such adaptations are essential for news content that is increasingly consumed on mobile devices. However, existing tools provide little support for responsive visualization design. We analyze a corpus of 231 responsive news visualizations and discuss formative interviews with five journalists about responsive visualization design. These interviews motivate four central design guidelines: enable simultaneous cross-device edits, facilitate device-specific customization, show cross-device previews, and support propagation of edits. Based on these guidelines, we present a prototype system that allows users to preview and edit multiple visualization versions simultaneously. We demonstrate the utility of the system features by recreating four real-world responsive visualizations from our corpus.
Venous Materials: Towards Interactive Fluidic Mechanisms
Hila Mor (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Tianyu Yu (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China)Ken Nakagaki (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Benjamin Harvey Miller (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Yichen Jia (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)Hiroshi Ishii (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)
Venous Materials is a novel concept and approach of an interactive material utilizing fluidic channels. We present a design method for fluidic mechanisms that respond to deformation by mechanical inputs from the user, such as pressure and bending. We designed a set of primitive venous structures that act as embedded analog fluidic sensors, displaying flow and color change. In this paper, we consider the fluid as the medium to drive tangible information triggered by deformation, and at the same time, to function as a responsive display of that information. To provide users with a simple way to create and validate designs of fluidic structures, we built a software platform and design tool UI. This design tool allows users to quickly design the geometry, and simulate the flow with intended mechanical force dynamically. We present a range of applications that demonstrate how Venous Materials can be utilized to augment interactivity of everyday physical objects.
BlyncSync: Enabling Multimodal Smartwatch Gestures with Synchronous Touch and Blink
Bryan Wang (University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada)Tovi Grossman (University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada)
Input techniques have been drawing abiding attention along with the continual miniaturization of personal computers. In this paper, we present BlyncSync, a novel multi-modal gesture set that leverages the synchronicity of touch and blink events to augment the input vocabulary of smartwatches with a rapid gesture, while at the same time, offers a solution to the false activation problem of blink-based input. BlyncSync contributes the concept of a mutual delimiter, where two modalities are used to jointly delimit the intention of each other's input. A study shows that BlyncSync is 33% faster than using a baseline input delimiter (physical smartwatch button), with only 150ms in overhead cost compared to traditional touch events. Furthermore, our data indicates that the gesture can be tuned to elicit a true positive rate of 97% and a false positive rate of 1.68%.
Toward Future-Centric Personal Informatics: Expecting Stressful Events and Preparing Personalized Interventions in Stress Management
Kwangyoung Lee (Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea)Hyewon Cho (Inha University, Incheon, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea)Kobiljon Toshnazarov (Inha University, Incheon, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea)Nematjon Narziev (Inha University, Incheon, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea)So Young Rhim (Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea)Kyungsik Han (Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea)YoungTae Noh (Inha University, Incheon, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea)Hwajung Hong (Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea)
Stress is caused by a variety of events in our daily lives. By anticipating stressful situations, we can prepare and better cope with stressors when they actually occur. However, many past-centric personal informatics (PI) tools focus on capturing events that already happened and analyzing the data. In this work, we examine how anticipation — a future-centric self-tracking practice — could be used to manage daily stress levels. To address this, we built MindForecaster, a calendar- mediated stress anticipation application that allows users to expect stressful events in advance, generates activities to mitigate stress, and evaluates actual stress levels compared to previously estimated stress levels. In a 30-day deployment with 47 users, the users who explicitly planned and executed coping interventions reported reduced stress more than those who only expected stressful events. We suggest design implications for stress management by incorporating the properties of anticipation into current PI models.