注目の論文一覧

各カテゴリ上位30論文までを表示しています

The ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (https://chi2021.acm.org/)

3
ThermoCaress: A Wearable Haptic Device with Illusory Moving Thermal Stimulation
Yuhu Liu (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Satoshi Nishikawa (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Young ah Seong (Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan)Ryuma Niiyama (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Yasuo Kuniyoshi (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)
We propose ThermoCaress, a haptic device to create a stroking sensation on the forearm using pressure force and present thermal feedback simultaneously. In our method, based on the phenomenon of thermal referral, by overlapping a stroke of pressure force, users feel as if the thermal stimulation moves although the position of temperature source is static. We designed the device to be compact and soft, using microblowers and inflatable pouches for presenting pressure force and water for presenting thermal feedback. Our user study showed that the device succeeded in generating thermal referrals and creating a moving thermal illusion. The results also suggested that cold temperature enhance the pleasantness of stroking. Our findings contribute to expanding the potential of thermal haptic devices.
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Touch&Fold: A Foldable Haptic Actuator for Rendering Touch in Mixed Reality
Shan-Yuan Teng (University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States)Pengyu Li (University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States)Romain Nith (University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States)Joshua Fonseca (University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States)Pedro Lopes (University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States)
We propose a nail-mounted foldable haptic device that provides tactile feedback to mixed reality (MR) environments by pressing against the user’s fingerpad when a user touches a virtual object. What is novel in our device is that it quickly tucks away when the user interacts with real-world objects. Its design allows it to fold back on top of the user’s nail when not in use, keeping the user’s fingerpad free to, for instance, manipulate handheld tools and other objects while in MR. To achieve this, we engineered a wireless and self-contained haptic device, which measures 24×24×41 mm and weighs 9.5 g. Furthermore, our foldable end-effector also features a linear resonant actuator, allowing it to render not only touch contacts (i.e., pressure) but also textures (i.e., vibrations). We demonstrate how our device renders contacts with MR surfaces, buttons, low- and high-frequency textures. In our first user study, we found that participants perceived our device to be more realistic than a previous haptic device that also leaves the fingerpad free (i.e., fingernail vibration). In our second user study, we investigated the participants’ experience while using our device in a real-world task that involved physical objects. We found that our device allowed participants to use the same finger to manipulate handheld tools, small objects, and even feel textures and liquids, without much hindrance to their dexterity, while feeling haptic feedback when touching MR interfaces.
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XRgonomics: Facilitating the Creation of Ergonomic 3D Interfaces
João Marcelo. Evangelista Belo (Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark)Anna Maria. Feit (ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland)Tiare Feuchtner (Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark)Kaj Grønbæk (Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark)
Arm discomfort is a common issue in Cross Reality applications involving prolonged mid-air interaction. Solving this problem is difficult because of the lack of tools and guidelines for 3D user interface design. Therefore, we propose a method to make existing ergonomic metrics available to creators during design by estimating the interaction cost at each reachable position in the user's environment. We present XRgonomics, a toolkit to visualize the interaction cost and make it available at runtime, allowing creators to identify UI positions that optimize users' comfort. Two scenarios show how the toolkit can support 3D UI design and dynamic adaptation of UIs based on spatial constraints. We present results from a walkthrough demonstration, which highlight the potential of XRgonomics to make ergonomics metrics accessible during the design and development of 3D UIs. Finally, we discuss how the toolkit may address design goals beyond ergonomics.
2
Large Scale Analysis of Multitasking Behavior During Remote Meetings
Hancheng Cao (Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States)Chia-Jung Lee (Amazon, Seattle, Washington, United States)Shamsi Iqbal (Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington, United States)Mary Czerwinski (Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington, United States)Priscilla N Y. Wong (UCL Interaction Centre, London, United Kingdom)Sean Rintel (Microsoft Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom)Brent Hecht (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, United States)Jaime Teevan (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, United States)Longqi Yang (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, United States)
Virtual meetings are critical for remote work because of the need for synchronous collaboration in the absence of in-person interactions. In-meeting multitasking is closely linked to people's productivity and wellbeing. However, we currently have limited understanding of multitasking in remote meetings and its potential impact. In this paper, we present what we believe is the most comprehensive study of remote meeting multitasking behavior through an analysis of a large-scale telemetry dataset collected from February to May 2020 of U.S. Microsoft employees and a 715-person diary study. Our results demonstrate that intrinsic meeting characteristics such as size, length, time, and type, significantly correlate with the extent to which people multitask, and multitasking can lead to both positive and negative outcomes. Our findings suggest important best-practice guidelines for remote meetings (e.g., avoid important meetings in the morning) and design implications for productivity tools (e.g., support positive remote multitasking).
2
Elbow-Anchored Interaction: Designing Restful Mid-Air Input
Rafael Veras (Huawei, Markham, Ontario, Canada)Gaganpreet Singh (Huawei, Markham, Ontario, Canada)Farzin Farhadi-Niaki (Huawei, Markham, Ontario, Canada)Ritesh Udhani (University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada)Parth Pradeep. Patekar (University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada)Wei Zhou (Huawei Technologies, Markham, Ontario, Canada)Pourang Irani (University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada)Wei Li (Huawei Canada, Markham, Ontario, Canada)
We designed a mid-air input space for restful interactions on the couch. We observed people gesturing in various postures on a couch and found that posture affects the choice of arm motions when no constraints are imposed by a system. Study participants that sat with the arm rested were more likely to use the forearm and wrist, as opposed to the whole arm. We investigate how a spherical input space, where forearm angles are mapped to screen coordinates, can facilitate restful mid-air input in multiple postures. We present two controlled studies. In the first, we examine how a spherical space compares with a planar space in an elbow-anchored setup, with a shoulder-level input space as baseline. In the second, we examine the performance of a spherical input space in four common couch postures that set unique constraints to the arm. We observe that a spherical model that captures forearm movement facilitates comfortable input across different seated postures.
2
The Role of Social Presence for Cooperation in Augmented Reality on Head Mounted Devices
Niklas Osmers (Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany)Michael Prilla (Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany)Oliver Blunk (Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany)Gordon George. Brown (Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany)Marc Janßen (Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany)Nicolas Kahrl (Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany)
With growing interest regarding cooperation support using Augmented Reality (AR), social presence has become a popular measure of its quality. While this concept is established throughout cooperation research, its role in AR is still unclear: Some work uses social presence as an indicator for support quality, while others found no impact at all. To clarify this role, we conducted a literature review of recent publications that empirically investigated social presence in cooperative AR. After a thorough selection procedure, we analyzed 19 publications according to factors influencing social presence and the impact of social presence on cooperation support. We found that certain interventions support social presence better than others, that social presence has an influence on user’s preferences and that the relation between social presence and cooperation quality may depend on the symmetry of the cooperation task. This contributes to existing research by clarifying the role of social presence for cooperative AR and deriving corresponding design recommendations.
2
Can Playing with Toy Blocks Reflect Behavior Problems in Children?
Xiyue Wang (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan)Kazuki Takashima (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan)Tomoaki Adachi (Miyagi Gakuin Women's University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan)Yoshifumi Kitamura (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan)
Although children’s behavioral and mental problems are generally diagnosed in clinical settings, the prediction and awareness of children’s mental wellness in daily settings are getting increased attention. Toy blocks are both accessible in most children’s daily lives and provide physicality as a unique non-verbal channel to express their inner world. In this paper, we propose a toy block approach for predicting a range of behavior problems in young children (4-6 years old) measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We defined and classified a set of quantitative play actions from IMU-embedded toy blocks. Play data collected from 78 preschoolers revealed that specific play actions and patterns indicate total problems, internalizing problems, and aggressive behavior in children. The results align with our qualitative observations, and suggest the potential of predicting the clinical behavior problems of children based on short free-play sessions with sensor-embedded toy blocks.
2
SoniBand: Understanding the Effects of Metaphorical Movement Sonifications on Body Perception and Physical Activity
Judith Ley-Flores (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes, Madrid, Spain)Laia Turmo Vidal (Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)Nadia Berthouze (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Aneesha Singh (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Frederic Bevilacqua (STMS IRCAM-CNRS-Sorbonne Université, Paris, France)Ana Tajadura-Jiménez (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid / University College London, Madrid / London, Spain)
Negative body perceptions are a major predictor of physical inactivity, a serious health concern. Sensory feedback can be used to alter such body perception; movement sonification, in particular, has been suggested to affect body perception and levels of physical activity (PA) in inactive people. We investigated how metaphorical sounds impact body perception and PA. We report two qualitative studies centered on performing different strengthening/flexibility exercises using SoniBand, a wearable that augments movement through different sounds. The first study involved physically active participants and served to obtain a nuanced understanding of the sonifications’ impact. The second, in the home of physically inactive participants, served to identify which effects could support PA adherence. Our findings show that movement sonification based on metaphors led to changes in body perception (e.g., feeling strong) and PA (e.g., repetitions) in both populations, but effects could differ according to the existing PA-level. We discuss principles for metaphor-based sonification design to foster PA.
2
“Grip-that-there”: An Investigation of Explicit and Implicit Task Allocation Techniques for Human-Robot Collaboration
Karthik Mahadevan (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)Mauricio Sousa (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)Anthony Tang (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)Tovi Grossman (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
In ad-hoc human-robot collaboration (HRC), humans and robots work on a task without pre-planning the robot's actions prior to execution; instead, task allocation occurs in real-time. However, prior research has largely focused on task allocations that are pre-planned - there has not been a comprehensive exploration or evaluation of techniques where task allocation is adjusted in real-time. Inspired by HCI research on territoriality and proxemics, we propose a design space of novel task allocation techniques including both explicit techniques, where the user maintains agency, and implicit techniques, where the efficiency of automation can be leveraged. The techniques were implemented and evaluated using a tabletop HRC simulation in VR. A 16-participant study, which presented variations of a collaborative block stacking task, showed that implicit techniques enable efficient task completion and task parallelization, and should be augmented with explicit mechanisms to provide users with fine-grained control.
2
Bad Breakdowns, Useful Seams, and Face Slapping: Analysis of VR Fails on YouTube
Emily Dao (Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia)Andreea Muresan (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)Kasper Hornbæk (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)Jarrod Knibbe (University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia)
Virtual reality (VR) is increasingly used in complex social and physical settings outside of the lab. However, not much is known about how these settings influence use, nor how to design for them. We analyse 233 YouTube videos of VR Fails to: (1) understand when breakdowns occur, and (2) reveal how the seams between VR use and the social and physical setting emerge. The videos show a variety of fails, including users flailing, colliding with surroundings, and hitting spectators. They also suggest causes of the fails, including fear, sensorimotor mismatches, and spectator participation. We use the videos as inspiration to generate design ideas. For example, we discuss more flexible boundaries between the real and virtual world, ways of involving spectators, and interaction designs to help overcome fear. Based on the findings, we further discuss the ‘moment of breakdown’ as an opportunity for designing engaging and enhanced VR experiences.
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Improving Viewing Experiences of First-Person Shooter Gameplays with Automatically-Generated Motion Effects
Gyeore Yun (POSTECH, Pohang, Korea, Republic of)Hyoseung Lee (POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, Republic of)Sangyoon Han (Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Korea, Republic of)Seungmoon Choi (Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Gyeongbuk, Korea, Republic of)
In recent times, millions of people enjoy watching video gameplays at an eSports stadium or home. We seek a method that improves gameplay spectator or viewer experiences by presenting multisensory stimuli. Using a motion chair, we provide the motion effects automatically generated from the audiovisual stream to the viewers watching a first-person shooter (FPS) gameplay. The motion effects express the game character’s movement and gunfire action. We describe algorithms for the computation of such motion effects developed using computer vision techniques and deep learning. By a user study, we demonstrate that our method of providing motion effects significantly improves the viewing experiences of FPS gameplay. The contributions of this paper are with the motion synthesis algorithms integrated for FPS games and the empirical evidence for the benefits of experiencing multisensory gameplays.
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Experiencing Simulated Confrontations in Virtual Reality
Patrick Dickinson (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom)Arthur Jones (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom)Wayne Christian (Lincoln University, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom)Andrew Westerside (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom)Francis Mulloy (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom)Kathrin Gerling (KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium)Kieran Hicks (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom)Liam Wilson (University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom)Adrian Parke (University of the West of Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom)
The use of virtual reality (VR) to simulate confrontational human behaviour has significant potential for use in training, where the recreation of uncomfortable feelings may help users to prepare for challenging real-life situations. In this paper we present a user study (n=68) in which participants experienced simulated confrontational behaviour performed by a virtual character either in immersive VR, or on a 2D display. Participants reported a higher elevation in anxiety in VR, which correlated positively with a perceived sense of physical space. Character believability was influenced negatively by visual elements of the simulation, and positively by behavioural elements, which complements findings from previous work. We recommend the use of VR for simulations of confrontational behaviour, where a realistic emotional response is part of the intended experience. We also discuss incorporation of domain knowledge of human behaviours, and carefully crafted motion-captured sequences, to increase users' sense of believability.
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Physiological and Perceptual Responses to Athletic Avatars while Cycling in Virtual Reality
Martin Kocur (University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany)Florian Habler (University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany)Valentin Schwind (Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt, Germany)Paweł W. Woźniak (Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands)Christian Wolff (University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany)Niels Henze (University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany)
Avatars in virtual reality (VR) enable embodied experiences and induce the Proteus effect - a shift in behavior and attitude to mimic one's digital representation. Previous work found that avatars associated with physical strength can decrease users' perceived exertion when performing physical tasks. However, it is unknown if an avatar's appearance can also influence the user's physiological response to exercises. Therefore, we conducted an experiment with 24 participants to investigate the effect of avatars' athleticism on heart rate and perceived exertion while cycling in VR following a standardized protocol. We found that the avatars' athleticism has a significant and systematic effect on users' heart rate and perceived exertion. We discuss potential moderators such as body ownership and users' level of fitness. Our work contributes to the emerging area of VR exercise systems.
2
More Kawaii than a Real-Person Streamer: Understanding How the Otaku Community Engages with and Perceives Virtual YouTubers
Zhicong Lu (City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China)Chenxinran Shen (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)Jiannan Li (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)Hong Shen (Carnegie Mellon University , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States)Daniel Wigdor (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
Live streaming has become increasingly popular, with most streamers presenting their real-life appearance. However, Virtual YouTubers (VTubers), virtual 2D or 3D avatars that are voiced by humans, are emerging as live streamers and attracting a growing viewership in East Asia. Although prior research has found that many viewers seek real-life interpersonal interactions with real-person streamers, it is currently unknown what makes VTuber live streams engaging or how they are perceived differently than real-person streamers. We conducted an interview study to understand how viewers engage with VTubers and perceive the identities of the voice actors behind the avatars (i.e., Nakanohito). The data revealed that Virtual avatars bring unique performative opportunities which result in different viewer expectations and interpretations of VTuber behavior. Viewers intentionally upheld the disembodiment of VTuber avatars from their voice actors. We uncover the nuances in viewer perceptions and attitudes and further discuss the implications of VTuber practices to the understanding of live streaming in general.
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Oh, Snap! A Fabrication Pipeline to Magnetically Connect Conventional and 3D-Printed Electronics
Martin Schmitz (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany)Jan Riemann (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany)Florian Müller (TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany)Steffen Kreis (TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany)Max Mühlhäuser (TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany)
3D printing has revolutionized rapid prototyping by speeding up the creation of custom-shaped objects. With the rise of multi-material 3Dprinters, these custom-shaped objects can now be made interactive in a single pass through passive conductive structures. However, connecting conventional electronics to these conductive structures often still requires time-consuming manual assembly involving many wires, soldering or gluing. To alleviate these shortcomings, we propose Oh, Snap!: a fabrication pipeline and interfacing concept to magnetically connect a 3D-printed object equipped with passive sensing structures to conventional sensing electronics. To this end, Oh, Snap! utilizes ferromagnetic and conductive 3D-printed structures, printable in a single pass on standard printers. We further present a proof-of-concept capacitive sensing board that enables easy and robust magnetic assembly to quickly create interactive 3D-printed objects. We evaluate Oh, Snap! by assessing the robustness and quality of the connection and demonstrate its broad applicability by a series of example applications.
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Interaction Illustration Taxonomy: Classification of Styles and Techniques for Visually Representing Interaction Scenarios
Axel Antoine (Univ. Lille, CNRS, Inria, Centrale Lille, UMR 9189 CRIStAL, Lille, France)Sylvain Malacria (Univ. Lille, CNRS, Inria, Centrale Lille, UMR 9189 CRIStAL, Lille, France)Nicolai Marquardt (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Géry Casiez (Univ. Lille, CNRS, Inria, Centrale Lille, UMR 9189 CRIStAL, Lille, France)
Static illustrations are ubiquitous means to represent interaction scenarios. Across papers and reports, these visuals demonstrate people's use of devices, explain systems, or show design spaces. Creating such figures is challenging, and very little is known about the overarching strategies for visually representing interaction scenarios. To mitigate this task, we contribute a unified taxonomy of design elements that compose such figures. In particular, we provide a detailed classification of Structural and Interaction strategies, such as composition, visual techniques, dynamics, representation of users, and many others -- all in context of the type of scenarios. This taxonomy can inform researchers' choices when creating new figures, by providing a concise synthesis of visual strategies, and revealing approaches they were not aware of before. Furthermore, to support the community for creating further taxonomies, we also provide three open-source software facilitating the coding process and visual exploration of the coding scheme.
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LightTouch Gadgets: Extending Interactions on Capacitive Touchscreens by Converting Light Emission to Touch Inputs
Kaori Ikematsu (Yahoo Japan Corporation, Tokyo, Japan)Kunihiro Kato (Tokyo University of Technology, Tokyo, Japan)Yoshihiro Kawahara (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)
We present LightTouch, a 3D-printed passive gadget to enhance touch interactions on unmodified capacitive touchscreens. The LightTouch gadgets simulate finger operations such as tapping, swiping, and multi-touch gestures by means of conductive materials and light-dependent resistors (LDR) embedded in the object. The touchscreen emits visible light and the LDR senses the level of this light, which changes its resistance value. By controlling the screen brightness, it intentionally connects or disconnects the path between the GND and the touchscreen, thus allowing the touch inputs to be controlled. In contrast to conventional physical extensions for touchscreens, our technique requires neither continuous finger contact on the conductive part nor the use of batteries. As such, it opens up new possibilities for touchscreen interactions beyond the simple automation of touch inputs, such as establishing a communication channel between devices, enhancing the trackability of tangibles, and inter-application operations.
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Proxemics and Social Interactions in an Instrumented Virtual Reality Workshop
Julie R.. Williamson (University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom)Jie Li (Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam, Netherlands)David A.. Shamma (Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam, Netherlands)Vinoba Vinayagamoorthy (BBC Research & Development, London, United Kingdom)Pablo Cesar (CWI, Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Virtual environments (VEs) can create collaborative and social spaces, which are increasingly important in the face of remote work and travel reduction. Recent advances, such as more open and widely available platforms, create new possibilities to observe and analyse interaction in VEs. Using a custom instrumented build of Mozilla Hubs to measure position and orientation, we conducted an academic workshop to facilitate a range of typical workshop activities. We analysed social interactions during a keynote, small group breakouts, and informal networking/hallway conversations. Our mixed-methods approach combined environment logging, observations, and semi-structured interviews. The results demonstrate how small and large spaces influenced group formation, shared attention, and personal space, where smaller rooms facilitated more cohesive groups while larger rooms made small group formation challenging but personal space more flexible. Beyond our findings, we show how the combination of data and insights can fuel collaborative spaces' design and deliver more effective virtual workshops.
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TiltChair: Manipulative Posture Guidance by Actively Inclining the Seat of an Office Chair
Kazuyuki Fujita (Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan)Aoi Suzuki (Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan)Kazuki Takashima (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan)Kaori Ikematsu (Yahoo Japan Corporation, Tokyo, Japan)Yoshifumi Kitamura (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan)
We propose TiltChair, an actuated office chair that physically manipulates the user's posture by actively inclining the chair's seat to address problems associated with prolonged sitting. The system controls the inclination angle and motion speed with the aim of achieving manipulative but unobtrusive posture guidance. To demonstrate its potential, we first built a prototype of TiltChair with a seat that could be tilted by pneumatic control. We then investigated the effects of the seat's inclination angle and motions on task performance and overall sitting experience through two experiments. The results show that the inclination angle mainly affects the difficulty of maintaining one's posture, while the motion speed affected the conspicuousness and subjective acceptability of the motion. However, these seating conditions did not affect objective task performance. Based on these results, we propose a design space for facilitating effective seat-inclination behavior using the three dimensions of angle, speed, and continuity. Furthermore, we discuss promising applications.
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IdeaBot: Investigating Social Facilitation in Human-Machine Team Creativity
Angel Hsing-Chi Hwang (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States)Andrea Stevenson Won (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States)
The present study investigates how human subjects collaborate with a computer-mediated chatbot in creative idea generation tasks. In three text-based between-group studies, we tested whether the perceived identity (i.e.,whether the bot is perceived as a machine or as a human) or the conversational style of a teammate would moderate the outcomes of participants’ creative production. In Study 1, participants worked with either a chatbot or a human confederate. In Study 2, all participants worked with a human teammate but were informed that their partner was either a human or a chatbot. Conversely, all participants worked with a chatbot in Study 3, but were told the identity of their partner was either a chatbot or a human. We investigated differences in idea generation outcomes and found that participants consistently contributed more ideas and with ideas of higher quality when they perceived their teamworking partner as a bot. Furthermore, when the conversational style of the partner was robotic, participants with high anxiety in group communication reported greater creative self-efficacy in task performance. Finally, whether the perceived dominance of a partner and the pressure to come up with ideas during the task mediated positive outcomes of idea generation also depends on whether the conversational style of the bot partner was robot- or human-like. Based on our findings, we discussed implications for future design of artificial agents as active team players in collaboration tasks.
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Interoceptive Interaction: An Embodied Metaphor Inspired Approach to Designing for Meditation
Claudia Daudén Roquet (Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom)Corina Sas (Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom)
Meditation is a mind-body practice with considerable wellbeing benefits that can take different forms. Novices usually start with focused attention meditation that supports regulation of attention towards an inward focus or internal bodily sensations and away from external stimuli or distractors. Most meditation technologies employ metaphorical mappings of meditative states to visual or soundscape representations to support awareness of mind wandering and attention regulation, although the rationale for such mappings is seldom articulated. Moreover, such external modalities also take the focus attention away from the body. We advance the concept of interoceptive interaction and employed the embodied metaphor theory to explore the design of mappings to the interoceptive sense of thermoception. We illustrate this concept with WarmMind, an on-body interface integrating heat actuators for mapping meditation states. We report on an exploratory study with 10 participants comparing our novel thermal metaphors for mapping meditation states with comparable ones, albeit in aural modality, as provided by Muse meditation app. Findings indicate a tension between the highly discoverable soundscape’s metaphors which however hinder attention regulation, and the ambiguous thermal metaphors experienced as coming from the body and supported attention regulation. We discuss the qualities of embodied metaphors underpinning this tension and propose an initial framework to inform the design of metaphorical mappings for meditation technologies.
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Mindless Attractor: A False-Positive Resistant Intervention for Drawing Attention Using Auditory Perturbation
Riku Arakawa (The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Japan)Hiromu Yakura (University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan)
Explicitly alerting users is not always an optimal intervention, especially when they are not motivated to obey. For example, in video-based learning, learners who are distracted from the video would not follow an alert asking them to pay attention. Inspired by the concept of Mindless Computing, we propose a novel intervention approach, Mindless Attractor, that leverages the nature of human speech communication to help learners refocus their attention without relying on their motivation. Specifically, it perturbs the voice in the video to direct their attention without consuming their conscious awareness. Our experiments not only confirmed the validity of the proposed approach but also emphasized its advantages in combination with a machine learning-based sensing module. Namely, it would not frustrate users even though the intervention is activated by false-positive detection of their attentive state. Our intervention approach can be a reliable way to induce behavioral change in human-AI symbiosis.
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Teardrop Glasses: Pseudo Tears Induce Sadness in You and Those Around You
Shigeo Yoshida (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Takuji Narumi (the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Tomohiro Tanikawa (the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Hideaki Kuzuoka (The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan)Michitaka Hirose (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)
Emotional contagion is a phenomenon in which one's emotions are transmitted among individuals unconsciously by observing others' emotional expressions. In this paper, we propose a method for mediating people's emotions by triggering emotional contagion through artificial bodily changes such as pseudo tears. We focused on shedding tears because of the link to several emotions besides sadness. In addition, it is expected that shedding tears would induce emotional contagion because it is observable by others. We designed an eyeglasses-style wearable device, Teardrop glasses, that release water drops near the wearer's eyes. The drops flow down the cheeks and emulate real tears. The study revealed that artificial crying with pseudo tears increased sadness among both wearers and those observing them. Moreover, artificial crying attenuated happiness and positive feelings in observers. Our findings show that actual bodily changes are not necessary for inducing emotional contagion as artificial bodily changes are also sufficient.
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Flower Jelly Printer: Slit Injection Printing for Parametrically Designed Flower Jelly
Mako Miyatake (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Koya Narumi (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Yuji Sekiya (The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan)Yoshihiro Kawahara (The university of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan)
Flower jellies, a delicate dessert in which a flower-shaped jelly floats inside another clear jelly, fascinate people with both their beauty and elaborate construction. In efforts to simplify the challenging fabrication and enrich the design space of this dessert, we present Flower Jelly Printer: a printing device and design software for digitally fabricating flower jellies. Our design software lets users play with parameters and preview the resulting forms until achieving their desired shapes. We also developed slit injection printing that directly injects colored jelly into a base jelly, and shared several design examples to show the breadth of design possibilities. Finally, the user study with novice and experienced users demonstrates that our system benefits creators of all experience levels by iterative design and precise fabrication. We hope to enable more people to design and create their own flower jellies while expanding access and the design space for digitally fabricated foods.
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TexYZ: Embroidering Enameled Wires for Three Degree-of-Freedom Mutual Capacitive Sensing
Roland Aigner (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hagenberg, Austria)Andreas Pointner (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hagenberg, Austria)Thomas Preindl (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hagenberg, Austria)Rainer Danner (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hagenberg, Austria)Michael Haller (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hagenberg, Austria)
In this paper, we present TexYZ, a method for rapid and effortless manufacturing of textile mutual capacitive sensors using a commodity embroidery machine. We use enameled wire as a bobbin thread to yield textile capacitors with high quality and consistency. As a consequence, we are able to leverage the precision and expressiveness of projected mutual capacitance for textile electronics, even when size is limited. Harnessing the assets of machine embroidery, we implement and analyze five distinct electrode patterns, examine the resulting electrical features with respect to geometrical attributes, and demonstrate the feasibility of two promising candidates for small-scale matrix layouts. The resulting sensor patches are further evaluated in terms of capacitance homogeneity, signal-to-noise ratio, sensing range, and washability. Finally, we demonstrate two use case scenarios, primarily focusing on continuous input with up to three degrees-of-freedom.
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Phonetroller: Visual Representations of Fingers for Precise Touch Input when using a Phone in VR
Fabrice Matulic (Preferred Networks Inc., Tokyo, Japan)Aditya Ganeshan (Preferred Networks Inc., Tokyo, Japan)Hiroshi Fujiwara (Preferred Networks Inc., Tokyo, Japan)Daniel Vogel (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada)
Smartphone touch screens are potentially attractive for interaction in virtual reality (VR). However, the user cannot see the phone or their hands in a fully immersive VR setting, impeding their ability for precise touch input. We propose mounting a mirror above the phone screen such that the front-facing camera captures the thumbs on or near the screen. This enables the creation of semi-transparent overlays of thumb shadows and inference of fingertip hover points with deep learning, which help the user aim for targets on the phone. A study compares the effect of visual feedback on touch precision in a controlled task and qualitatively evaluates three example applications demonstrating the potential of the technique. The results show that the enabled style of feedback is effective for thumb-size targets, and that the VR experience can be enriched by using smartphones as VR controllers supporting precise touch input.
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Sketchnote Components, Design Space Dimensions, and Strategies for Effective Visual Note Taking
Rebecca Zheng (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Marina Fernández Camporro (University College London, London, United Kingdom)Hugo Romat (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland)Nathalie Henry Riche (Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington, United States)Benjamin Bach (Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)Fanny Chevalier (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)Ken Hinckley (Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington, United States)Nicolai Marquardt (University College London, London, United Kingdom)
Sketchnoting is a form of visual note taking where people listen to, synthesize, and visualize ideas from a talk or other event using a combination of pictures, diagrams, and text. Little is known about the design space of this kind of visual note taking. With an eye towards informing the implementation of digital equivalents of sketchnoting, inking, and note taking, we introduce a classification of sketchnote styles and techniques, with a qualitative analysis of 103 sketchnotes, and situated in context with six semi-structured follow up interviews. Our findings distill core sketchnote components (content, layout, structuring elements, and visual styling) and dimensions of the sketchnote design space, classifying levels of conciseness, illustration, structure, personification, cohesion, and craftsmanship. We unpack strategies to address particular note taking challenges, for example dealing with constraints of live drawings, and discuss relevance for future digital inking tools, such as recomposition, styling, and design suggestions.
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Data-Driven Mark Orientation for Trend Estimation in Scatterplots
Tingting Liu (School of Computer Science, Qingdao, Shandong, China)Xiaotong Li (School of Computer Science, Qingdao, Shandong, China)Chen Bao (Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, China)Michael Correll (Tableau Software, Seattle, Washington, United States)Changehe Tu (Shandong Univ., Qingdao, China)Oliver Deussen (University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany)Yunhai Wang (Shandong University, Qingdao, China)
A common task for scatterplots is communicating trends in bivariate data. However, the ability of people to visually estimate these trends is under-explored, especially when the data violate assumptions required for common statistical models, or visual trend estimates are in conflict with statistical ones. In such cases, designers may need to intervene and de-bias these estimations, or otherwise inform viewers about differences between statistical and visual trend estimations. We propose data-driven mark orientation as a solution in such cases, where the directionality of marks in the scatterplot guide participants when visual estimation is otherwise unclear or ambiguous. Through a set of laboratory studies, we investigate trend estimation across a variety of data distributions and mark directionalities, and find that data-driven mark orientation can help resolve ambiguities in visual trend estimates.
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Towards Fairness in Practice: A Practitioner-Oriented Rubric for Evaluating Fair ML Toolkits
Brianna Richardson (Spotify, New York, New York, United States)Jean Garcia-Gathright (Spotify, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)Samuel F. Way (Spotify, New York, New York, United States)Jennifer Thom (Spotify, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)Henriette Cramer (Spotify, San Francisco, California, United States)
In order to support fairness-forward thinking by machine learning (ML) practitioners, fairness researchers have created toolkits that aim to transform state-of-the-art research contributions into easily-accessible APIs. Despite these efforts, recent research indicates a disconnect between the needs of practitioners and the tools offered by fairness research. By engaging 20 ML practitioners in a simulated scenario in which they utilize fairness toolkits to make critical decisions, this work aims to utilize practitioner feedback to inform recommendations for the design and creation of fair ML toolkits. Through the use of survey and interview data, our results indicate that though fair ML toolkits are incredibly impactful on users’ decision-making, there is much to be desired in the design and demonstration of fairness results. To support the future development and evaluation of toolkits, this work offers a rubric that can be used to identify critical components of Fair ML toolkits.
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Breaking out of the Lab: Mitigating Mind Wandering with Gaze-Based Attention-Aware Technology in Classrooms
Stephen Hutt (Univeristy of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States)Kristina Krasich (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States)James R.. Brockmole (University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, United States)Sidney D'Mello (University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States)
We designed and tested an attention-aware learning technology (AALT) that detects and responds to mind wandering (MW), a shift in attention from task-related to task-unrelated thoughts, that is negatively associated with learning. We leveraged an existing gaze-based mind wandering detector that uses commercial off the shelf eye tracking to inform real-time interventions during learning with an Intelligent Tutoring System in real-world classrooms. The intervention strategies, co-designed with students and teachers, consisted of using student names, reiterating content, and asking questions, with the aim to reengage wandering minds and improve learning. After several rounds of iterative refinement, we tested our AALT in two classroom studies with 287 high-school students. We found that interventions successfully reoriented attention and, compared to two control conditions, reduced mind wandering and improved retention (measured via a delayed assessment) for students with low prior-knowledge who occasionally (but not excessively) mind wandered. We discuss implications for developing gaze-based AALTs for real-world contexts.
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HoloBar: Rapid Command Execution for Head-Worn AR Exploiting Around the Field-of-View Interaction
Houssem Saidi (IRIT - Elipse, Toulouse, France)Emmanuel Dubois (IRIT - Elipse, Toulouse, France)Marcos Serrano (IRIT - Elipse, Toulouse, France)
Inefficient menu interfaces lead to system and application commands being tedious to execute in Immersive Environments. HoloBar is a novel approach to ease the interaction with multi-level menus in immersive environments: with HoloBar, the hierarchical menu splits between the field of view (FoV) of the Head Mounted Display and the smartphone (SP). Command execution is based on around-the-FoV interaction with the SP, and touch input on the SP display. The HoloBar offers a unique combination of features, namely rapid mid-air activation, implicit selection of top-level items and preview of second-level items on the SP, ensuring rapid access to commands. In a first study we validate its activation method, which consists in bringing the SP within an activation distance from the FoV. In a second study, we compare the HoloBar to two alternatives, including the standard HoloLens menu. Results show that the HoloBar shortens each step of a multi-level menu interaction (menu activation, top-level item selection, second-level item selection and validation), with a high success rate. A follow-up study confirms that these results remain valid when compared with the two validation mechanisms of HoloLens (Air-Tap and clicker).
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BackTrack: 2D Back-of-device Interaction Through Front Touchscreen
Chang Xiao (Columbia University, New York, New York, United States)Karl Bayer (Snap Inc., New York, New York, United States)Changxi Zheng (Columbia University, New York, New York, United States)Shree K. Nayar (Snap, New York, New York, United States)
We present BackTrack, a trackpad placed on the back of a smartphone to track fine-grained finger motions. Our system has a small form factor, with all the circuits encapsulated in a thin layer attached to a phone case. It can be used with any off-the-shelf smartphone, requiring no power supply or modification of the operating systems. BackTrack simply extends the finger tracking area of the front screen, without interrupting the use of the front screen. It also provides a switch to prevent unintentional touch on the trackpad. All these features are enabled by a battery-free capacitive circuit, part of which is a transparent, thin-film conductor coated on a thin glass and attached to the front screen. To ensure accurate and robust tracking, the capacitive circuits are carefully designed. Our design is based on a circuit model of capacitive touchscreens, justified through both physics-based finite-element simulation and controlled laboratory experiments. We conduct user studies to evaluate the performance of using BackTrack. We also demonstrate its use in a number of smartphone applications.
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Poros: Configurable Proxies for Distant Interactions in VR
Henning Pohl (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)Klemen Lilija (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)Jess McIntosh (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)Kasper Hornbæk (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)
A compelling property of virtual reality is that it allows users to interact with objects as they would in the real world. However, such interactions are limited to space within reach. We present Poros, a system that allows users to rearrange space. After marking a portion of space, the distant marked space is mirrored in a nearby proxy. Thereby, users can arrange what is within their reachable space, making it easy to interact with multiple distant spaces as well as nearby objects. Proxies themselves become part of the scene and can be moved, rotated, scaled, or anchored to other objects. Furthermore, they can be used in a set of higher-level interactions such as alignment and action duplication. We show how Poros enables a variety of tasks and applications and also validate its effectiveness through an expert evaluation.
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Spatial Labeling: Leveraging Spatial Layout for Improving Label Quality in Non-Expert Image Annotation
Chia-Ming Chang (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Chia-Hsien Lee (LeadBest Consulting Group, Taipei, Taiwan)Takeo Igarashi (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)
Non-expert annotators (who lack sufficient domain knowledge) are often recruited for manual image labeling tasks owing to the lack of expert annotators. In such a case, label quality may be relatively low. We propose leveraging the spatial layout for improving label quality in non-expert image annotation. In the proposed system, an annotator first spatially lays out the incoming images and labels them on an open space, placing related items together. This serves as a working space (spatial organization) for tentative labeling. During the process, the annotator observes and organizes the similarities and differences between the items. Finally, the annotator provides definitive labels to the images based on the results of the spatial layout. We ran a user study comparing the proposed method and a traditional non-spatial layout in an image labeling task. The results demonstrated that annotators can complete the labeling tasks more accurately using the spatial layout interface than the non-spatial layout interface.
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GuideCopter - A Precise Drone-Based Haptic Guidance Interface for Blind or Visually Impaired People
Felix Huppert (University of Passau, Passau, Bavaria, Germany)Gerold Hoelzl (University of Passau, Passau, Bavaria, Germany)Matthias Kranz (University of Passau, Passau, Bavaria, Germany)
Drone assisted navigation aids for supporting walking activities of visually impaired have been established in related work but fine-point object grasping tasks and the object localization in unknown environments still presents an open and complex challenge. We present a drone-based interface that provides fine-grain haptic feedback and thus physically guides them in hand-object localization tasks in unknown surroundings. Our research is built around community groups of blind or visually impaired (BVI) people, which provide in-depth insights during the development process and serve later as study participants. A pilot study infers users' sensibility to applied guiding stimuli forces and the different human-drone tether interfacing possibilities. In a comparative follow-up study, we show that our drone-based approach achieves greater accuracy compared to a current audio-based hand guiding system and delivers overall a more intuitive and relatable fine-point guiding experience.
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Grand Challenges in Immersive Analytics
Barrett Ens (Monash University, Melbourne, Australia)Benjamin Bach (Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)Maxime Cordeil (Monash University, Melbourne, Australia)Ulrich Engelke (CSIRO, Kensington, WA, Australia)Marcos Serrano (IRIT - Elipse, Toulouse, France)Wesley Willett (University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada)Arnaud Prouzeau (Monash University, Melbourne, Australia)Christoph Anthes (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hagenberg, Austria)Wolfgang Büschel (Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)Cody Dunne (Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)Tim Dwyer (Monash University, Melbourne, Australia)Jens Grubert (Coburg University, Coburg, Bavaria, Germany)Jason Haga (AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan)Nurit Kirshenbaum (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States)Dylan Kobayashi (University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States)Tica Lin (Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States)Monsurat Olaosebikan (Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, United States)Fabian Pointecker (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hagenberg, Austria)David Saffo (Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)Nazmus Saquib (MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States)Dieter Schmalstieg (Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria)Danielle Albers. Szafir (University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States)Matt Whitlock (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States)Yalong Yang (Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States)
Immersive Analytics is a quickly evolving field that unites several areas such as visualisation, immersive environments, and human-computer interaction to support human data analysis with emerging technologies. This research has thrived over the past years with multiple workshops, seminars, and a growing body of publications, spanning several conferences. Given the rapid advancement of interaction technologies and novel application domains, this paper aims toward a broader research agenda to enable widespread adoption. We present 17 key research challenges developed over multiple sessions by a diverse group of 24 international experts, initiated from a virtual scientific workshop at ACM CHI 2020. These challenges aim to coordinate future work by providing a systematic roadmap of current directions and impending hurdles to facilitate productive and effective applications for Immersive Analytics.
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MARVIS: Combining Mobile Devices and Augmented Reality for Visual Data Analysis
Ricardo Langner (Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)Marc Satkowski (Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)Wolfgang Büschel (Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)Raimund Dachselt (Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)
We present MARVIS, a conceptual framework that combines mobile devices and head-mounted Augmented Reality (AR) for visual data analysis. We propose novel concepts and techniques addressing visualization-specific challenges. By showing additional 2D and 3D information around and above displays, we extend their limited screen space. AR views between displays as well as linking and brushing are also supported, making relationships between separated visualizations plausible. We introduce the design process and rationale for our techniques. To validate MARVIS' concepts and show their versatility and widespread applicability, we describe six implemented example use cases. Finally, we discuss insights from expert hands-on reviews. As a result, we contribute to a better understanding of how the combination of one or more mobile devices with AR can benefit visual data analysis. By exploring this new type of visualization environment, we hope to provide a foundation and inspiration for future mobile data visualizations.
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ElectroRing: Subtle Pinch and Touch Detection with a Ring
Wolf Kienzle (Facebook, Redmond, Washington, United States)Eric Whitmire (Facebook, Redmond, Washington, United States)Chris Rittaler (Facebook, Redmond, Washington, United States)Hrvoje Benko (Facebook, Redmond, Washington, United States)
We present ElectroRing, a wearable ring-based input device that reliably detects both onset and release of a subtle finger pinch, and more generally, contact of the fingertip with the user's skin. ElectroRing addresses a common problem in ubiquitous touch interfaces, where subtle touch gestures with little movement or force are not detected by a wearable camera or IMU. ElectroRing's active electrical sensing approach provides a step-function-like change in the raw signal, for both touch and release events, which can be easily detected using only basic signal processing techniques. Notably, ElectroRing requires no second point of instrumentation, but only the ring itself, which sets it apart from existing electrical touch detection methods. We built three demo applications to highlight the effectiveness of our approach when combined with a simple IMU-based 2D tracking system.
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A Human-AI Collaborative Approach for Clinical Decision Making on Rehabilitation Assessment
Min Hun Lee (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States)Daniel P. Siewiorek (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States)Asim Smailagic (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States)Alexandre Bernardino (Instituto Superior Tecnico, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal)Sergi Bermúdez i Badia (Universidade da Madeira, Funchal, Portugal)
Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have made it increasingly applicable to supplement expert's decision-making in the form of a decision support system on various tasks. For instance, an AI-based system can provide therapists quantitative analysis on patient's status to improve practices of rehabilitation assessment. However, there is limited knowledge on the potential of these systems. In this paper, we present the development and evaluation of an interactive AI-based system that supports collaborative decision making with therapists for rehabilitation assessment. This system automatically identifies salient features of assessment to generate patient-specific analysis for therapists, and tunes with their feedback. In two evaluations with therapists, we found that our system supports therapists significantly higher agreement on assessment (0.71 average F1-score) than a traditional system without analysis (0.66 average F1-score, $p < 0.05$). After tuning with therapist’s feedback, our system significantly improves its performance from 0.8377 to 0.9116 average F1-scores ($p < 0.01$). This work discusses the potential of a human-AI collaborative system to support more accurate decision making while learning from each other's strengths.
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Trade-offs for Substituting a Human with an Agent in a Pair Programming Context: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Sandeep Kaur. Kuttal (University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States)Bali Ong (University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States)Kate Kwasny (University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States)Peter Robe (University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States)
Pair programming has a documented history of benefits, such as increased code quality, productivity, self-efficacy, knowledge transfer, and reduced gender gap. Research uncovered problems with pair programming related to scheduling, collocating, role imbalance, and power dynamics. We investigated the trade-offs of substituting a human with an agent to simultaneously provide benefits and alleviate obstacles in pair programming. We conducted gender-balanced studies with human-human pairs in a remote lab with 18 programmers and Wizard-of-Oz studies with 14 programmers, then analyzed results quantitatively and qualitatively. Our comparative analysis of the two studies showed no significant differences in productivity, code quality, and self-efficacy. Further, agents facilitated knowledge transfer; however, unlike humans, agents were unable to provide logical explanations or discussions. Human partners trusted and showed humility towards agents. Our results demonstrate that agents can act as effective pair programming partners and open the way towards new research on conversational agents for programming.
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BodyStylus: Freehand On-Skin Design and Fabrication of Epidermal Interfaces
Narjes Pourjafarian (Saarland University, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany)Marion Koelle (Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany)Bruno Fruchard (Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany)Sahar Mavali (Saarland University, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany)Konstantin Klamka (Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)Daniel Groeger (Saarland University, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany)Paul Strohmeier (Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany)Jürgen Steimle (Saarland University, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany)
In traditional body-art, designs are adjusted to the body as they are applied, enabling creative improvisation and exploration. Conventional design and fabrication methods of epidermal interfaces, however, separate these steps. With BodyStylus we present the first computer-assisted approach for on-skin design and fabrication of epidermal interfaces. Inspired by traditional techniques, we propose a hand-held tool that augments freehand inking with digital support: projected in-situ guidance assists creating valid on-body circuits and aesthetic ornaments that align with the human bodyscape, while pro-active switching between inking and non-inking creates error preventing constraints. We contribute BodyStylus' design rationale and interaction concept along with an interactive prototype that uses self-sintering conductive ink. Results of two focus group explorations showed that guidance was more appreciated by artists, while constraints appeared more useful to engineers, and that working on the body inspired critical reflection on the relationship between bodyscape, interaction, and designs.
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Floral Tribute Ritual in Virtual Reality: Design and Validation of SenseVase with Virtual Memorial
Daisuke Uriu (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Noriyasu Obushi (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Zendai Kashino (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Atsushi Hiyama (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)Masahiko Inami (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)
While floral tributes are commonly used for the public commemoration of victims of disasters, war, and other accidents, flowers in vases color everyday life. In this research, these features of flowers are intertwined with the recent phenomenon of online memorials to develop a virtual floral tribute concept that includes physical rituals. We designed SenseVase, a smart vase to detect flowers placed in it, and a 3DCG Virtual Memorial that illustrates floral tributes given by people using SenseVases at home. This paper describes how we developed our design concept by reviewing previous literature and social aspects, and presents a video illustrating the concept. To validate the current concept, we interviewed several experts knowledgeable in public commemorations, virtual and online communities, and the floral business. Through a discussion of our findings from the design process and interviews, we propose a new direction for how HCI technology can contribute to public commemoration in addition to personal memorialization.
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Augmenting Scientific Papers with Just-in-Time, Position-Sensitive Definitions of Terms and Symbols
Andrew Head (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States)Kyle Lo (Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Seattle, Washington, United States)Dongyeop Kang (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States)Raymond Fok (University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States)Sam Skjonsberg (Allen Institute for AI, Seattle, Washington, United States)Daniel Weld (University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States)Marti Hearst (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States)
Despite the central importance of research papers to scientific progress, they can be difficult to read. Comprehension is often stymied when the information needed to understand a passage resides somewhere else—in another section, or in another paper. In this work, we envision how interfaces can bring definitions of technical terms and symbols to readers when and where they need them most. We introduce ScholarPhi, an augmented reading interface with four novel features: (1) tooltips that surface position-sensitive definitions from elsewhere in a paper, (2) a filter over the paper that “declutters” it to reveal how the term or symbol is used across the paper, (3) automatic equation diagrams that expose multiple definitions in parallel, and (4) an automatically generated glossary of important terms and symbols. A usability study showed that the tool helps researchers of all experience levels read papers. Furthermore, researchers were eager to have ScholarPhi’s definitions available to support their everyday reading.
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GamesBond: Bimanual Haptic Illusion of Physically Connected Objects for Immersive VR Using Grip Deformation
Neung Ryu (KAIST, Daejeon, Korea, Republic of)Hye-Young Jo (KAIST, Daejeon, Korea, Republic of)Michel Pahud (Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington, United States)Mike Sinclair (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, United States)Andrea Bianchi (KAIST, Daejeon, Korea, Republic of)
Virtual Reality experiences, such as games and simulations, typically support the usage of bimanual controllers to interact with virtual objects. To recreate the haptic sensation of holding objects of various shapes and behaviors with both hands, previous researchers have used mechanical linkages between the controllers that render adjustable stiffness. However, the linkage cannot quickly adapt to simulate dynamic objects, nor it can be removed to support free movements. This paper introduces GamesBond, a pair of 4-DoF controllers without physical linkage but capable to create the illusion of being connected as a single device, forming a virtual bond. The two controllers work together by dynamically displaying and physically rendering deformations of hand grips, and so allowing users to perceive a single connected object between the hands, such as a jumping rope. With a user study and various applications we show that GamesBond increases the realism, immersion, and enjoyment of bimanual interaction.
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Vinci: An Intelligent Graphic Design System for Generating Advertising Posters
Shunan Guo (Tongji University, ShangHai, China)Zhuochen Jin (Tongji University, Shanghai, China)Fuling Sun (Tongji University, Shanghai, China)Jingwen Li (Intelligent Big Data Visualization Lab, Tongji University, China, Shanghai, China)Zhaorui Li (Tongji University, Shanghai, China)Yang Shi (Tongji College of Design and Innovation, Shanghai, China)Nan Cao (Tongji College of Design and Innovation, Shanghai, China)
Advertising posters are a commonly used form of information presentation to promote a product. Producing advertising posters often takes much time and effort of designers when confronted with abundant choices of design elements and layouts. This paper presents Vinci, an intelligent system that supports the automatic generation of advertising posters. Given the user-specified product image and taglines, Vinci uses a deep generative model to match the product image with a set of design elements and layouts for generating an aesthetic poster. The system also integrates online editing-feedback that supports users in editing the posters and updating the generated results with their design preference. Through a series of user studies and a Turing test, we found that Vinci can generate posters as good as human designers and that the online editing-feedback improves the efficiency in poster modification.
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Understanding, Detecting and Mitigating the Effects of Coactivations in Ten-Finger Mid-Air Typing in Virtual Reality
Conor R. Foy (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom)John J. Dudley (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom)Aakar Gupta (Facebook Inc, Redmond, Washington, United States)Hrvoje Benko (Facebook, Redmond, Washington, United States)Per Ola Kristensson (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom)
Typing with ten fingers on a virtual keyboard in virtual or augmented reality exposes a challenging input interpretation problem. There are many sources of noise in this interaction context and these exacerbate the challenge of accurately translating human actions into text. A particularly challenging input noise source arises from the physiology of the hand. Intentional finger movements can produce unintentional coactivations in other fingers. On a physical keyboard, the resistance of the keys alleviates this issue. On a virtual keyboard, coactivations are likely to introduce spurious input events under a naïve solution to input detection. In this paper we examine the features that discriminate intentional activations from coactivations. Based on this analysis, we demonstrate three alternative coactivation detection strategies with high discrimination power. Finally, we integrate coactivation detection into a probabilistic decoder and demonstrate its ability to further reduce uncorrected character error rates by approximately 10% relative and 0.9% absolute.
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RepliCueAuth: Validating the Use of a Lab-Based Virtual Reality Setup for Evaluating Authentication Systems
Florian Mathis (University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom)Kami Vaniea (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)Mohamed Khamis (University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom)
Evaluating novel authentication systems is often costly and time-consuming. In this work, we assess the suitability of using Virtual Reality (VR) to evaluate the usability and security of real-world authentication systems. To this end, we conducted a replication study and built a virtual replica of CueAuth [52], a recently introduced authentication scheme, and report on results from: (1) a lab-based in-VR usability study (N=20) evaluating user performance; (2) an online security study (N=22) evaluating system's observation resistance through virtual avatars; and (3) a comparison between our results and those previously reported in the real-world evaluation. Our analysis indicates that VR can serve as a suitable test-bed for human-centred evaluations of real-world authentication schemes, but the used VR technology can have an impact on the evaluation. Our work is a first step towards augmenting the design and evaluation spectrum of authentication systems and offers ground work for more research to follow.
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Domestic Robots and the Dream of Automation: Understanding Human Interaction and Intervention
Eike Schneiders (Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark)Anne Marie Kanstrup (Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark)Jesper Kjeldskov (Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark)Mikael B. Skov (Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark)
Domestic robots such as vacuum cleaners or lawnmowers are becoming popular consumer products in private homes, but while current HCI research on domestic robots has highlighted for example personalisation, long-term effects, or design guidelines, little attention has been paid to automation. To address this, we conducted a qualitative study with 24 participants in private households using interviews, contextual technology tours, and robot deployment. Through thematic analysis we identified three themes related to 1) work routines and automation, 2) domestic robot automation and the physical environment, as well as 3) interaction and breakdown intervention. We present an empirical understanding of how task automation using domestic robots can be implemented in the home. Lastly, we discuss our findings in relation to existing literature and highlight three opportunities for improved task automation using domestic robots for future research.
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From FOMO to JOMO: Examining the Fear and Joy of Missing Out and Presence in a 360° Video Viewing Experience
Tanja Aitamurto (University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States)Andrea Stevenson Won (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States)Sukolsak Sakshuwong (Stanford, Stanford, California, United States)Byungdoo Kim (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States)Yasamin Sadeghi (University of California, Los Angeles , Los Angeles, California, United States)Krysten Stein (University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States)Peter G. Royal (University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States)Catherine Lynn. Kircos (Evidation Health, San Mateo, California, United States)
Cinematic Virtual Reality (CVR), or 360° video, engages users in immersive viewing experiences. However, as users watch one part of the 360° view, they will necessarily miss out on events happening in other parts of the sphere. Consequently, fear of missing out (FOMO) is unavoidable. However, users can also experience the joy of missing out (JOMO). In a repeated measures, mixed methods design, we examined the fear and joy of missing out (FOMO and JOMO) and sense of presence in two repeat viewings of a 360° film using a head-mounted display. We found that users experienced both FOMO and JOMO. FOMO was caused by the users' awareness of parallel events in the spherical view, but users also experienced JOMO. FOMO did not compromise viewers' sense of presence, and FOMO also decreased in the second viewing session, while JOMO remained constant. The findings suggest that FOMO and JOMO can be two integral qualities in an immersive video viewing experience and that FOMO may not be as negative a factor as previously thought.
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GestureMap: Supporting Visual Analytics and Quantitative Analysis of Motion Elicitation Data by Learning 2D Embeddings
Hai Duong. Dang (University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany)Daniel Buschek (University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany)
This paper presents GestureMap, a visual analytics tool for gesture elicitation which directly visualises the space of gestures. Concretely, a Variational Autoencoder embeds gestures recorded as 3D skeletons on an interactive 2D map. GestureMap further integrates three computational capabilities to connect exploration to quantitative measures: Leveraging DTW Barycenter Averaging (DBA), we compute average gestures to 1) represent gesture groups at a glance; 2) compute a new consensus measure (variance around average gesture); and 3) cluster gestures with k-means. We evaluate GestureMap and its concepts with eight experts and an in-depth analysis of published data. Our findings show how GestureMap facilitates exploring large datasets and helps researchers to gain a visual understanding of elicited gesture spaces. It further opens new directions, such as comparing elicitations across studies. We discuss implications for elicitation studies and research, and opportunities to extend our approach to additional tasks in gesture elicitation.