While systems that use Artificial Intelligence (AI) are increasingly becoming part of everyday technology use, we do not fully understand how AI changes design processes. A structured understanding of how designers work with AI is needed to improve the design process and educate future designers. To that end, we conducted interviews with designers who participated in projects which used AI. While past work focused on AI systems created by experienced designers, we focus on the perspectives of a diverse sample of interaction designers. Our results show that the design process of an interactive system is affected when AI is integrated and that design teams adapt their processes to accommodate AI. Based on our data, we contribute four approaches adopted by interaction designers working with AI: a priori, post-hoc, model-centric, and competence-centric. Our work contributes a pragmatic account of how design processes for AI systems are enacted.
Enterprises have recently adopted AI to human resource management (HRM) to evaluate employees’ work performance evaluation. However, in such an HRM context where multiple stakeholders are complexly intertwined with different incentives, it is problematic to design AI reflecting one stakeholder group’s needs (e.g., enterprises, HR managers). Our research aims to investigate what tensions surrounding AI in HRM exist among stakeholders and explore design solutions to balance the tensions. By conducting stakeholder-centered participatory workshops with diverse stakeholders (including employees, employers/HR teams, and AI/business experts), we identified five major tensions: 1) divergent perspectives on fairness, 2) the accuracy of AI, 3) the transparency of the algorithm and its decision process, 4) the interpretability of algorithmic decisions, and 5) the trade off between productivity and inhumanity. We present stakeholder-centered design ideas for solutions to mitigate these tensions and further discuss how to promote harmony among various stakeholders at the workplace.
AI-based decision support tools (ADS) are increasingly used to augment human decision-making in high-stakes, social contexts. As public sector agencies begin to adopt ADS, it is critical that we understand workers’ experiences with these systems in practice. In this paper, we present findings from a series of interviews and contextual inquiries at a child welfare agency, to understand how they currently make AI-assisted child maltreatment screening decisions. Overall, we observe how workers’ reliance upon the ADS is guided by (1) their knowledge of rich, contextual information beyond what the AI model captures, (2) their beliefs about the ADS’s capabilities and limitations relative to their own, (3) organizational pressures and incentives around the use of the ADS, and (4) awareness of misalignments between algorithmic predictions and their own decision-making objectives. Drawing upon these findings, we discuss design implications towards supporting more effective human-AI decision-making.
Creating presentation slides is a critical but time-consuming task for data scientists. While researchers have proposed many AI techniques to lift data scientists' burden on data preparation and model selection, few have targeted the presentation creation task. Based on the needs identified from a formative study, this paper presents NB2Slides, an AI system that facilitates users to compose presentations of their data science work. NB2Slides uses deep learning methods as well as example-based prompts to generate slides from computational notebooks, and take users' input (e.g., audience background) to structure the slides. NB2Slides also provides an interactive visualization that links the slides with the notebook to help users further edit the slides. A follow-up user evaluation with 12 data scientists shows that participants believed NB2Slides can improve efficiency and reduces the complexity of creating slides. Yet, participants questioned the future of full automation and suggested a human-AI collaboration paradigm.