Recent work has investigated the construction of touch-sensitive knitted fabrics, capable of being manufactured at scale, and having only two connections to external hardware. Additionally, several sensor design patterns and application prototypes have been introduced. Our aim is to start shaping the future of this technology according to user expectations. Through a formative focus group study, we explore users' views of using these fabrics in different contexts and discuss potential concerns and application areas. Subsequently, we take steps toward addressing relevant questions, by first providing design guidelines for application designers. Furthermore, in one user study, we demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish different swipe gestures and identify accidental contact with the sensor, a common occurrence in everyday life. We then present experiments investigating the effect of stretching and laundering of the sensors on their resistance, providing insights about considerations necessary to include in computational models.
Moving a slider to set the music volume or control the air conditioning is a familiar task that requires little attention. However, adjusting a virtual slider on a featureless touchscreen is much more demanding and can be dangerous in situations such as driving.
Here, we study how a gradual tactile feedback, provided by a haptic touchscreen, can replace visual cues. As users adjust a setting with their finger, they feel a continuously changing texture, which spatial frequency correlates to the value of the setting.We demonstrate that, after training with visual and auditory feedback, users are able to adjust a setting on a haptic touchscreen without looking at the screen, thereby reducing visual distraction. Every learning strategy yielded similar performance, suggesting an amodal integration. This study shows that surface haptics can provide intuitive and precise tuning possibilities for tangible interfaces on touchscreens.
With the proliferation of shape-change research in affective computing, there is a need to deepen understandings of affective responses to shape-change display. Little research has focused on affective reactions to tactile experiences in shape-change, particularly in the absence of visual information. It is also rare to study response to the shape-change as it unfolds, isolated from a final shape-change outcome. We report on two studies on touch-affect associations, using the crossmodal ``Bouba-Kiki'' paradigm, to understand affective responses to shape-change as it unfolds.
We investigate experiences with a shape-change gadget, as it moves between rounded (``Bouba'') and spiky (``Kiki'') forms. We capture affective responses via the circumplex model, and use a motion analysis approach to understand the certainty of these responses.
We find that touch-affect associations are influenced by both the size and the frequency of the shape-change and may be modality-dependent, and that certainty in affective associations is influenced by association-consistency.
Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies create exciting new opportunities for people to interact with computing resources and information. Less exciting is the need for holding hand controllers, which limits applications that demand expressive, readily available interactions. Prior research investigated freehand AR/VR input by transforming the user's body into an interaction medium. In contrast to previous work that has users' hands grasp virtual objects, we propose a new interaction technique that lets users' hands become virtual objects by imitating the objects themselves. For example, a thumbs-up hand pose is used to mimic a joystick. We created a wide array of interaction designs around this idea to demonstrate its applicability in object retrieval and interactive control tasks. Collectively, we call these interaction designs Hand Interfaces. From a series of user studies comparing Hand Interfaces against various baseline techniques, we collected quantitative and qualitative feedback, which indicates that Hand Interfaces are effective, expressive, and fun to use.
Interacting with not only virtual but also real objects, or even virtual objects augmented by real objects becomes a trend of virtual reality (VR) interactions and is common in augmented reality (AR). However, current haptic shape rendering devices generally focus on feedback of virtual objects, and require the users to put down or take off those devices to perceive real objects. Therefore, we propose FingerX to render haptic shapes and enable users to touch, grasp and interact with virtual and real objects simultaneously. An extender on the fingertip extends to a corresponding height to support between the fingertip and the real objects or the hand, to render virtual shapes. A ring rotates and withdraws the extender behind the fingertip when touching real objects. By independently controlling four extenders and rings on each finger with the exception of the pinky finger, FingerX renders feedback in three common scenarios, including touching virtual objects augmented by real environments (e.g., a desk), grasping virtual objects augmented by real objects (e.g., a bottle) and grasping virtual objects in the hand. We conducted a shape recognition study to evaluate the recognition rates for these three scenarios and obtained an average recognition rate of 76.59% with shape visual feedback. We then performed a VR study to observe how users interact with virtual and real objects simultaneously and verify that FingerX significantly enhances VR realism, compared to current vibrotactile methods.