Previous work hypothesized that for Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) displays a mismatch between disparities and optical focus cues, known as the vergence and accommodation conflict (VAC), affects depth perception and thus limits user performance in 3D selection tasks within arm's reach (peri-personal space). To investigate this question, we built a multifocal stereo display, which can eliminate the influence of the VAC for pointing within the investigated distances. In a user study, participants performed a virtual hand 3D selection task with targets arranged laterally or along the line of sight, with and without a change in visual depth, in display conditions with and without the VAC. Our results show that the VAC influences 3D selection performance in common VR and AR stereo displays and that multifocal displays have a positive effect on 3D selection performance with a virtual hand.
Mixed Reality is gaining interest as a platform for collaboration and focused work to a point where it may supersede current office settings in future workplaces. At the same time, we expect that interaction with physical objects and face-to-face communication will remain crucial for future work environments, which is a particular challenge in fully immersive Virtual Reality. In this work, we reconcile those requirements through a user's individual Asynchronous Reality, which enables seamless physical interaction across time. When a user is unavailable, e.g., focused on a task or in a call, our approach captures co-located or remote physical events in real-time, constructs a causality graph of co-dependent events, and lets immersed users revisit them at a suitable time in a causally accurate way. Enabled by our system AsyncReality, we present a workplace scenario that includes walk-in interruptions during a person's focused work, physical deliveries, and transient spoken messages. We then generalize our approach to a use-case agnostic concept and system architecture. We conclude by discussing the implications of an Asynchronous Reality for future offices.
Visuo-haptic illusions are a method to expand proxy-based interactions in VR by introducing unnoticeable discrepancies between the virtual and real-world. Yet, how different design variables affect the illusions with proxies is still unclear. To unpack a subset of variables, we conducted two user studies with 48 participants to explore the impact of (1) different grasping types and movement trajectories, and (2) different grasping types and object masses on the discrepancy which may be introduced. Our Bayes analysis suggests that grasping types and object masses (≤ 500 g) did not noticeably affect the discrepancy, but for movement trajectory, results were inconclusive. Further, we identified a significant difference between un-/restricted movement trajectories. Our data shows considerable differences in participants’ proprioceptive accuracy, which seem to correlate with their prior VR experience. Finally, we illustrate the impact of our key findings on the visuo-haptic illusion design process by showcasing a new design workflow.
Today spectating and streaming virtual reality (VR) activities typically involves spectators viewing a 2D stream of the VR user’s view. Streaming 2D videos of the game play is popular and well-supported by platforms such as Twitch. However, the generic streaming of full 3D representations is less explored. Thus, while the VR player’s experience may be fully immersive, spectators are limited to 2D videos. This asymmetry lessens the overall experience for spectators, who themselves may be eager to spectate in VR. DreamStream puts viewers in the virtual environment of the VR application, allowing them to look “over the shoulder” of the VR player. Spectators can view streamed VR content immersively in 3D, independently explore the VR scene beyond what the VR player sees and ultimately cohabit the virtual environment alongside the VR player. For the VR player, DreamStream provides a spatial awareness of all their spectators. DreamStream retrofits and works with existing VR applications. We discuss the design and implementation of DreamStream, and carry out three qualitative informal evaluations. These evaluations shed light on the strengths and weakness of using DreamStream for the purpose of interactive spectating. Our participants found that DreamStream’s VR viewer interface offered increased immersion, and made it easier to communicate and interact with the VR player.
Constructing olfactory interfaces on demand requires significant design proficiency and engineering effort. The absence of powerful and convenient tools that reduced innovation complexity posed obstacles for future research in the area. To address this problem, we proposed O&O, a modular olfactory interface DIY toolkit. The toolkit consists of: (1) a scent generation kit, a set of electronics and accessories that supported three common scent vaporization techniques; (2) a module construction kit, a set of primitive cardboard modules for assembling permutable functional structures; (3) a design manual, a step-by-step design thinking framework that directs the decision-making and prototyping process. We organized a formal workshop with 19 participants and four solo DIY trials to evaluate the capability of the toolkit, the overall user engagement, the creations in both sessions, and the iterative suggestions. Finally, design implications and future opportunities were discussed for further research.