9. Living with Emerging Technologies

Driving from a Distance: Challenges and Guidelines for Autonomous Vehicle Teleoperation Interfaces
説明

Autonomous vehicle (AV) technologies are rapidly evolving with the vision of having self-driving cars moving safely with no human input. However, it is clear that at least in the near and foreseeable future, AVs will not be able to resolve all road incidents and that in some situations remote human assistance will be required. However, remote driving is not trivial and introduces many challenges stemming mostly from the physical disconnect of the remote operator. In order to highlight these challenges and understand how to better design AV teleoperation interfaces, we conducted several observations of AV teleoperation sessions as well as in-depth interviews with 14 experts. Based on these interviews, we provide an investigation and analysis of the major AV teleoperation challenges. We follow this by providing design suggestions for the development of future teleoperation interfaces for assistance and driving of AVs.

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Mediated Visits: Longitudinal Domestic Dwelling with Mobile Robotic Telepresence
説明

Mobile Robotic Telepresence (MRP) systems are remotely controlled, mobile videoconferencing devices that allow the remote user to move independently and have a physical presence in the environment. This paper presents a longitudinal study of MRP use in the home, where the first author used an MRP to connect with family, her partner, and friends over a six-month period. Taking an ethnomethodological approach, we present video recorded fragments to explore the phenomenon of `visiting' where MRP users drop into the home for a period of time. We unpack the more `procedural' elements---arriving and departing---alongside ways of `dwelling' together during a visit, and the qualities of mobility, autonomous presence and spontaneity that emerge.

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Cultural Influences on Chinese Citizens' Adoption of Digital Contact Tracing: A Human Infrastructure Perspective
説明

Digital contact tracing is an ICT approach for controlling public health crises. It identifies users' risk of infection based on their healthcare and travel information. In the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries implemented digital contact tracing to contain the coronavirus outbreak. However, the adoption rates vary significantly across different countries. In this study, we investigate Chinese people's adoption of digital contact tracing. We aim at finding the influence of Chinese culture on people's attitudes and behaviors toward the technology. We interviewed 26 Chinese participants and used thematic analysis to interpret the data. Our findings showed that Chinese culture shaped citizens' interactions with the digital contact tracing at multiple levels; driven by the culture, Chinese citizens accepted digital contact tracing and contributed to making digital contact tracing a socio-technical infrastructure of people's daily lives. We also discuss such cultural influences with the growing literature of human infrastructure and crisis informatics.

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User Perceptions of Extraversion in Chatbots after Repeated Use
説明

Whilst imbuing robots and voice assistants with personality has been found to positively impact user experience, little is known about user perceptions of personality in purely text-based chatbots. In a within-subjects study, we asked N=34 participants to interact with three chatbots with different levels of Extraversion (extraverted, average, introverted), each over the course of four days. We systematically varied the chatbots' responses to manipulate Extraversion based on work in the psycholinguistics of human behaviour. Our results show that participants perceived the extraverted and average chatbots as such, whereas verbal cues transferred from human behaviour were insufficient to create an introverted chatbot. Whilst most participants preferred interacting with the extraverted chatbot, participants engaged significantly more with the introverted chatbot as indicated by the users' average number of written words. We discuss implications for researchers and practitioners on how to design chatbot personalities that can adapt to user preferences.

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Drawing Out the Everyday Hyper-[In]Securities of Digital Identity
説明

In a study of everyday digital identity, a set of primary drawings were made by researchers in online focus group settings as a way to capture our participants' spoken narratives of hyper-[in]security in the usages of digital identity. In a second stage of work, key extracts from the drawings were collaged using the method described in the paper, allowing an exploratory qualitative cartography of hyper-[in]security to be constructed. These secondary collages group the [in]securities thematically without losing essential contextual information. Samples of our data are given, to illustrate the contribution of the method to experience-centred design, with special reference to security from the perspective of marginalised and underserved communities. We discuss our method as a step towards multidimensional cognitive mapping of the salient features of our participants' narratives about hyper-[in]security, potentially paving the way for further world building explorations of digital identity futures.

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