14. Design and Bodily Action

Tracing Conceptions of the Body in HCI: From User to More-Than-Human
説明

This paper traces different conceptions of the body in HCI and identifies a narrative from user to body, body to bodies, and bodies to more-than-human bodies. Firstly, this paper aims to present a broader, updated, survey of work around the body in HCI. The overview shows how bodies are conceptualized as performative, sensing, datafied, intersectional and more-than-human. This paper then diverges from similar surveys of research addressing the body in HCI in that it is more disruptive and offers a critique of these approaches and pointers for where HCI might go next. We end our paper with recommendations drawn from across the different approaches to the body in HCI. In particular, that researchers working with the body have much to gain from the 4th wave HCI approach when designing with and for the body, where our relationships with technologies are understood as entangled and the body is always more-than-human.

日本語まとめ

Understanding the Design Space of Embodied Passwords based on Muscle Memory
説明

Passwords have become a ubiquitous part of our everyday lives, needed for every web-service and system. However, it is challenging to create safe and diverse alphanumeric passwords, and to recall them, imposing a cognitive burden on the user. Through consecutive experiments, we explored the movement space, affordances and interaction, and memorability of a tangible, handheld, embodied password. In this context, we found that: (1) a movement space of 200 mm × 200 mm is preferred; (2) each context has a perceived level of safety, which—together with the affordances and link to familiarity—influences how the password is performed. Furthermore, the artefact’s dimensions should be balanced within the design itself, with the user, and the context, but there is a trade-off between the perceived safety and ergonomics; and (3) the designed embodied passwords can be recalled for at least a week, with participants creating unique passwords which were reproduced consistently.

説明

Starting to menstruate can restrict adolescents' movements due to physiological changes and societal stigma. We present a participatory soma design project advocating for young adolescents to listen to and care for their newly-menstruating bodies, specifically focusing on participation in sport. We designed Menarche Bits, an open-ended prototyping toolkit consisting of shape-changing actuators and heat pads, and used it in two design workshops with seven participants aged 16-18, as part of collaboration and menstrual advocacy in their sports clubs and high school. The participants designed menstrual technologies that respond to menstrual cramps and depressive, anxious feelings before menstruating. We contribute findings on designing menstrual technologies with adolescents using participatory soma design. We found that a toolkit approach to the design of menstrual technologies can allow for pluralist experiences of menstrual cycles. In addition, we found that participatory design with adolescents benefits from drawing on qualities of embodiment and participants' own body literacy.

日本語まとめ

Azalea: Co-experience in Remote Dialog through Diminished Reality and Somaesthetic Interaction Design
説明

We introduce Azalea: a design to enrich remote dialog by diminishing externalities, created through a process informed by somaesthetics. Azalea is a tactile cushion that envelops a smartphone running a bespoke app. A pair of Azaleas mediate an embodied co-experience between remote interlocutors via a motion-driven soundscape and audio-driven visuals. While most designs for enriching remote communication increase dimensionality and fidelity of modalities, Azalea diminishes distractions and serves an abstract medium for co-experiencing embodied information. We present the theoretical foundations and design tactics of Azalea, and characterize the experience through a qualitative empirical study. Our findings culminated in 12 qualities, supporting 5 themes with design implications that contribute to (1) a design ethos of diminished reality and (2) an expansion of somaesthetic HCI towards expression and communication.

日本語まとめ

Dance and Choreography in HCI: A Two-Decade Retrospective
説明

Designing computational support for dance is an emerging area ofHCI research, incorporating the cultural, experiential, and embodiedcharacteristics of the third-wave shift. The challenges of recognisingthe abstract qualities of body movement, and of mediating betweenthe diverse parties involved in the idiosyncratic creative process,present important questions to HCI researchers: how can we effec-tively integrate computing with dance, to understand and cultivatethe felt dimension of creativity, and to aid the dance-making process?In this work, we systematically review the past twenty years of danceliterature in HCI. We discuss our findings, propose directions forfuture HCI works in dance, and distil lessons for related disciplines.

日本語まとめ

Exploring Awareness of Breathing through Deep Touch Pressure
説明

Deep Pressure Therapy relies on exerting \textit{firm touch} to help individuals with sensory sensitivity. We performed first-person explorations of deep pressure enabled by shape-changing actuation driven by breathing sensing. This revealed a novel design space with rich, evocative, aesthetically interesting interactions that can help increase breathing awareness and appreciation through: (1) applying symmetrical as well as asymmetrical pressure on the torso; (2) using pressure to direct attention to muscles or bone structure involved in different breathing patterns; (3) apply synchronous as well as asynchronous feedback following or opposing the user's breathing rhythm through applying rhythmic pressure. Taken together these explorations led us to design (4) \textit{breathing correspondence interactions} -- a balance point right between leading and following users' breathing patterns by first applying deep pressure -- almost to the point of being unpleasant -- and then releasing in rhythmic flow.

日本語まとめ

Towards “Avatar-Friendly” 3D Manipulation Techniques: Bridging the Gap Between Sense of Embodiment and Interaction in Virtual Reality
説明

Avatars, the users' virtual representations, are becoming ubiquitous in virtual reality applications. In this context, the avatar becomes the medium which enables users to manipulate objects in the virtual environment. It also becomes the users' main spatial reference, which can not only alter their interaction with the virtual environment, but also the perception of themselves. In this paper, we review and analyse the current state-of-the-art for 3D object manipulation and the sense of embodiment. Our analysis is twofold. First, we discuss the impact that the avatar can have on object manipulation. Second, we discuss how the different components of a manipulation technique (i.e. input, control and feedback) can influence the user’s sense of embodiment. Throughout the analysis, we crystallise our discussion with practical guidelines for VR application designers and we propose several research topics towards avatar-friendly’’ manipulation techniques.

日本語まとめ

Interoceptive Interaction: An Embodied Metaphor Inspired Approach to Designing for Meditation
説明

Meditation is a mind-body practice with considerable wellbeing benefits that can take different forms. Novices usually start with focused attention meditation that supports regulation of attention towards an inward focus or internal bodily sensations and away from external stimuli or distractors. Most meditation technologies employ metaphorical mappings of meditative states to visual or soundscape representations to support awareness of mind wandering and attention regulation, although the rationale for such mappings is seldom articulated. Moreover, such external modalities also take the focus attention away from the body. We advance the concept of interoceptive interaction and employed the embodied metaphor theory to explore the design of mappings to the interoceptive sense of thermoception. We illustrate this concept with WarmMind, an on-body interface integrating heat actuators for mapping meditation states. We report on an exploratory study with 10 participants comparing our novel thermal metaphors for mapping meditation states with comparable ones, albeit in aural modality, as provided by Muse meditation app. Findings indicate a tension between the highly discoverable soundscape’s metaphors which however hinder attention regulation, and the ambiguous thermal metaphors experienced as coming from the body and supported attention regulation. We discuss the qualities of embodied metaphors underpinning this tension and propose an initial framework to inform the design of metaphorical mappings for meditation technologies.

日本語まとめ

“Feeling the sensor feeling you”: A soma design exploration on sensing non-habitual breathing
説明

Though seemingly straightforward and habitual, breathing is a complex bodily function. Problematising the space of designing for breathing as a non-habitual act pertaining to different bodies or situations, we conducted a soma design exploration together with a classical singer. Reflecting on how sensors could capture the impact and somatic experience of being sensed led us to develop a new sensing mechanism using shape-change technologies integrated in the Breathing Shell: a wearable that evokes a reciprocal experience of “feeling the sensor feeling you” when breathing. We contribute with two design implications: 1) Enabling reflections of the somatic impact of being sensed in tandem with the type of data captured, 2) creating a tactile impact of the sensor data on the body. Both implications aim to deepen one’s understanding of how the whole soma relates to or with biosensors and ultimately leading to designing for symbiotic experiences between biosensors and bodies.

日本語まとめ

The Design Space of Wearables for Sports and Fitness Practices
説明

The growing interest in wearables for sports and fitness calls for design knowledge and conceptualizations that can help shape future designs. Towards that end, we present and discuss a design space of wearables for these practices, based on a survey of previous work. Through a thematic analysis of 47 research publications in the domain, we surface core design decisions concerning wearability, technology design, and wearable use in practice. Building on these, we show how the design space takes into account the goals of introducing technology, that design decisions can be either directly designed, or left open for appropriation by end-users; and the social organization of the practice. We characterize prior work based on the design space elements, which yields trends and opportunities for design. Our contributions can help designers think about key design decisions, exploit trends and explore new areas in the domain of wearables for sports and fitness practices.

日本語まとめ

Articulating Soma Experiences using Trajectories
説明

In this paper, we reflect on the applicability of the concept of trajectories to soma design. Soma design is a first-person design method which considers users' subjective somatic or bodily experiences of a design. Due to bodily changes over time, soma experiences are inherently temporal. Current instruments for articulating soma experiences lack the power to express the effects of experiences on the body over time. To address this, we turn to trajectories, a well-known concept in the HCI community, as a way of mapping this aspect of soma experience. By showing trajectories through a range of dimensions, we can articulate individual experiences and differences in those experiences. Through analysis of a set of soma experience designs and a set of temporal dimensions within the experiences, this paper demonstrates how trajectories can provide a practical conceptual framing for articulating the temporal complexity of soma designs.

日本語まとめ

Exploring Smartphone Relationships through Roland Barthes using an Instrumented Pillow Technology Probe
説明

We examine a vocabulary of affective language, borrowed from Roland Barthes’ “A Lover’s Discourse: Fragments,” and its applicability to discourse describing smartphone attachment. This vocabulary, adopted from four of Barthes’ terms, waiting, dependency, anxiety, and absence, is used as a discursive lens to illustrate some of the many ways people understand and engage with their relationships to their smartphones. Based on this, a survey is conducted, and a speculative technology probe is created in the form of an instrumented pillow for people to lock away their smartphones during the night. The pillow is deployed in a diary study in which five people sleep with their phone locked away for multiple nights. The self-reported and observed behaviours are presented in a selection of vignettes. The results support the proposed discursive lens and suggest future interdisciplinary strategies to investigate how people relate to interactive technology, using a combined approach of literary theory and a technology probe supported by survey and study data.