There are needs for pen interaction on a laptop, and the market sees many pen-enabled laptop products. Many of these laptops can be transformed into tablets, when pen interaction is needed. In a real situation, however, a workflow often requires both keyboard and pen interactions, and such a convertible feature may not be effective. In this study, we introduce MirrorPad, a novel interface device contained in a laptop for direct pen interaction. It is both a normal touchpad and a viewport for pen interaction with a mirrored region on the screen. We report findings and decisions obtained from the design iterations that we conducted with users to refine MirrorPad toward the final design. In the user study, MirrorPad showed the same performance as that of the laptop configuration during keyboard interaction and a performance similar to that of the tablet configuration during pen interaction. The user study results confirmed that MirrorPad effectively supports a workflow, which requires interspersed keyboard and pen interactions, thereby achieving its initial goal.
Learning from text is a constructive activity in which sentence-level information is combined by the reader to build coherent mental models. With increasingly complex texts, forming a mental model becomes challenging due to a lack of background knowledge, and limits in working memory and attention. To address this, we are taught knowledge externalization strategies such as active reading and diagramming. Unfortunately, paper-and-pencil approaches may not always be appropriate, and software solutions create friction through difficult input modalities, limited workflow support, and barriers between reading and diagramming. For all but the simplest text, building coherent diagrams can be tedious and difficult. We propose Active Diagramming, an approach extending familiar active reading strategies to the task of diagram construction. Our prototype, texSketch, combines pen-and-ink interactions with natural language processing to reduce the cost of producing diagrams while maintaining the cognitive effort necessary for comprehension. Our user study finds that readers can effectively create diagrams without disrupting reading.
When sketching, we must choose between paper (expressive ease, ruler and eraser) and computational assistance (parametric support, a digital record). PHysically Assisted SKetching provides both, with a pen that displays force constraints with which the sketcher interacts as they draw on paper. Phasking provides passive, "bound" constraints (like a ruler); or actively "brings" the sketcher along a commanded path (e.g., a curve), which they can violate for creative variation. The sketcher modulates constraint strength (control sharing) by bearing down on the pen-tip. Phasking requires untethered, graded force-feedback, achieved by modifying a ballpoint drive that generates force through rolling surface contact. To understand phasking's viability, we implemented its interaction concepts, related them to sketching tasks and measured device performance. We assessed the experience of 10 sketchers, who could understand, use and delight in phasking, and who valued its control-sharing and digital twinning for productivity, creative control and learning to draw.
We propose mounting a downward-facing camera above the top end of a digital tablet pen. This creates a unique and practical viewing angle for capturing the pen-holding hand and the immediate surroundings which can include the other hand. The fabrication of a prototype device is described and the enabled interaction design space is explored, including dominant and non-dominant hand pose recognition, tablet grip detection, hand gestures, capturing physical content in the environment, and detecting users and pens. A deep learning computer vision pipeline is developed for classification, regression, and keypoint detection to enable these interactions. Example applications demonstrate usage scenarios and a qualitative user evaluation confirms the potential of the approach.
This paper introduces Glissade, a digital pen that generates balance shifting feedback by changing the weight distribution of the pen. A pulley system shifts a brass mass inside the pen to change the pen's center of mass and moment of inertia. When the mass is stationary, the pen delivers a constant yet natural sensation of weight, which can be used to convey a status. The pen can also generate a variety of haptic clues by actuating the mass according to the tilt or rotation of the pen, two commonly-used auxiliary pen input channels. Glissade demonstrates new possibilities that balance shifting feedback can bring to digital pen interactions. We validated the usability of this feedback by determining the recognizability of six balance patterns a mix of static and dynamic patterns chosen based on our design considerations in two controlled experiments. The results show that, on average, the participants could distinguish between the patterns with a 94.25% accuracy. At the end, we demonstrate a set of novel interactions enabled by Glissade and discuss the directions for future research.