We present G-ID, a method that utilizes the subtle patterns left by the 3D printing process to distinguish and identify objects that otherwise look similar to the human eye. The key idea is to mark different instances of a 3D model by varying slicing parameters that do not change the model geometry but can be detected as machine-readable differences in the print. As a result, G-ID does not add anything to the object but exploits the patterns appearing as a by-product of slicing, an essential step of the 3D printing pipeline.<br>We introduce the G-ID slicing and labeling interface that varies the settings for each instance, and the G-ID mobile app, which uses image processing techniques to retrieve the parameters and their associated labels from a photo of the 3D printed object. Finally, we evaluate our method's accuracy under different lighting conditions, when objects were printed with different filaments and printers, and with pictures taken from various positions and angles.
Advances in rapid prototyping platforms have made physiological sensing accessible to a wide audience. However, off-the-shelf electrodes commonly used for capturing biosignals are typically thick, non-conformal and do not support customization. We present PhysioSkin, a rapid, do-it-yourself prototyping method for fabricating custom multi-modal physiological sensors, using commercial materials and a commodity desktop inkjet printer. It realizes ultrathin skin-conformal patches (~1μm) and interactive textiles that capture sEMG, EDA and ECG signals. It further supports fabricating devices with custom levels of thickness and stretchability. We present detailed fabrication explorations on multiple substrate materials, functional inks and skin adhesive materials. Informed from the literature, we also provide design recommendations for each of the modalities. Evaluation results show that the sensor patches achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. Example applications demonstrate the functionality and versatility of our approach for prototyping a next generation of physiological devices that intimately couple with the human body.
Personalization of eating such that everyone consumes only what they need allows improving our management of food waste. In this paper, we explore the use of food 3D printing to create perceptual illusions for controlling the level of perceived satiety given a defined amount of calories. We present FoodFab, a system that allows users to control their food intake through modifying a food's internal structure via two 3D printing parameters: infill pattern and infill density. In two experiments with a total of 30 participants, we studied the effect of these parameters on users' chewing time that is known to affect people's feeling of satiety. Our results show that we can indeed modify the chewing time by varying infill pattern and density, and thus control perceived satiety. Based on the results, we propose two computational models and integrate them into a user interface that simplifies the creation of personalized food structures.
Two-factor authentication is a widely recommended security mechanism and already offered for different services. However, known methods and physical realizations exhibit considerable usability and customization issues. In this paper, we propose 3D-Auth, a new concept of two-factor authentication. 3D-Auth is based on customizable 3D-printed items that combine two authentication factors in one object. The object bottom contains a uniform grid of conductive dots that are connected to a unique embedded structure inside the item. Based on the interaction with the item, different dots turn into touch-points and form an authentication pattern. This pattern can be recognized by a capacitive touchscreen. Based on an expert design study, we present an interaction space with six categories of possible authentication interactions. In a user study, we demonstrate the feasibility of 3D-Auth items and show that the items are easy to use and the interactions are easy to remember.
Rapid prototyping of interactive textiles is still challenging, since manual skills, several processing steps, and expert knowledge are involved. We present Rapid Iron-On User Interfaces, a novel fabrication approach for empowering designers and makers to enhance fabrics with interactive functionalities. It builds on heat-activated adhesive materials consisting of smart textiles and printed electronics, which can be flexibly ironed onto the fabric to create custom interface functionality. To support rapid fabrication in a sketching-like fashion, we developed a handheld dispenser tool for directly applying continuous functional tapes of desired length as well as discrete patches. We introduce versatile compositions techniques that allow for creating complex circuits, utilizing commodity textile accessories and sketching custom-shaped I/O modules. We further contribute a comprehensive library of components for input, output, wiring and computing. Three example applications, results from technical experiments and expert reviews demonstrate the functionality, versatility and potential of this approach.