Interpolating Happiness: Understanding the Intensity Gradations of Face Emojis Across Cultures


We frequently utilize face emojis to express emotions in digital communication. But how wholly and precisely do such pictographs sample the emotional spectrum, and are there gaps to be closed? Our research establishes emoji intensity scales for seven basic emotions: happiness, anger, disgust, sadness, shock, annoyance, and love. In our survey (N = 1195), participants worldwide assigned emotions and intensities to 68 face emojis. According to our results, certain feelings, such as happiness or shock, are visualized by manifold emojis covering a broad spectrum of intensities. Other feelings, such as anger, have limited and only very intense representative visualizations. We further emphasize that the cultural background influences emojis' perception: for instance, linear-active cultures (e.g., UK, Germany) rate the intensity of such visualizations higher than multi-active (e.g., Brazil, Russia) or reactive cultures (e.g., Indonesia, Singapore). To summarize, our manuscript promotes future research on more expressive, culture-aware emoji design.

Andrey Krekhov
University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, NRW, Germany
Katharina Emmerich
University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, NRW, Germany
Johannes Fuchs
University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
Jens Harald. Krueger
University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, NRW, Germany


会議: CHI 2022

The ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (

セッション: Emotions

4 件の発表
2022-05-02 20:00:00
2022-05-02 21:15:00