The recently advanced robotics technology enables robots to assist users in their daily lives. Haptic guidance (HG) improves users' task performance through physical interaction between robots and users. It can be classified into optimal action-based HG (OAHG), which assists users with an optimal action, and user prediction-based HG (UPHG), which assists users with their next predicted action. This study aims to understand the difference between OAHG and UPHG and propose a combined HG (CombHG) that achieves optimal performance by complementing each HG type, which has important implications for HG design. We propose implementation methods for each HG type using deep learning-based approaches. A user study (n=20) in a haptic task environment indicated that UPHG induces better subjective evaluations, such as naturalness and comfort, than OAHG. In addition, the CombHG that we proposed further decreases the disagreement between the user intention and HG, without reducing the objective and subjective scores.
The ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (https://chi2021.acm.org/)